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Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY.

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Presentation on theme: "Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

2 The Topography of Iraq

3 Ethnic Groups in Iraq

4

5 Faisal, 1 st King of Iraq Created by the British in 1921 from three Ottoman provinces – Mosul, Baghdad, & Basra. Created by the British in 1921 from three Ottoman provinces – Mosul, Baghdad, & Basra. Prince Faisal from Arabia becomes king. Prince Faisal from Arabia becomes king. Iraq gains formal independence in Iraq gains formal independence in 1932.

6 Iraq in the Inter-War Era British maintained military bases. British maintained military bases. The Iraq Petroleum Co. created (a joint British, French, & American business). The Iraq Petroleum Co. created (a joint British, French, & American business). Iraqi oil helped the Allies during WW II. Iraqi oil helped the Allies during WW II.

7 Iraqi Military Gains Power Weak monarchy. Weak monarchy. Seven military coups between Seven military coups between British occupy Iraq in 1941 increase authoritarianism. British occupy Iraq in 1941 increase authoritarianism.

8 1958 Revolution Violent overthrow of the monarchy. Violent overthrow of the monarchy. Creation of the Republic of Iraq. Creation of the Republic of Iraq. Reform and dictatorship under President Abd al-Karim Qasim Reform and dictatorship under President Abd al-Karim Qasim purged western advisors. purged western advisors. centralized authority. centralized authority. some inclusion of Kurds and Shiites in the government. some inclusion of Kurds and Shiites in the government. some land reform. some land reform. public welfare projects. public welfare projects.

9 1963 & 1968 Coups 1952 Baath Party created Baath Party created Baath forced out of the new government after the coup Baath forced out of the new government after the coup Baath Party coup led by Major General Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr. His deputy was Saddam Hussein Baath Party coup led by Major General Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr. His deputy was Saddam Hussein. Violence becomes a vital part of Iraqi political culture! Violence becomes a vital part of Iraqi political culture!

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11 A Young Saddam Hussein ( ?) Saddams identity card when he was 10 years old. Born in Tikrit. Born in Tikrit. Peasant family with influential army relatives. Peasant family with influential army relatives. Tribal society. Tribal society. Joined Baath Party at 20. Joined Baath Party at 20. Aided in failed assassination of Qasim in Aided in failed assassination of Qasim in 1959.

12 Saddams Early Political Career Saddam at 17. After 1963 coup, he was put in charge of the security service for the Baath party. After 1963 coup, he was put in charge of the security service for the Baath party he became president of Iraq when al-Bakr was persuaded to step down he became president of Iraq when al-Bakr was persuaded to step down.

13 A Cult of Personality

14 1989 Victory Arch

15 Saddams Republican Guard The elite presidential security force. The elite presidential security force.

16 Oil Fields in Iraq

17 Gassing the Kurds

18 Ali Hasa al-Majid (Chemical Ali) I will kill them [the Kurds] all with chemical weapons!

19 A Reign of Terror: Mass Graves of Saddams Victims

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21 Iraq Invades Kuwait UN Security Council Resolution 678 (authorized military force to be used against Iraq.) August 2, 1990

22 Operation Desert Storm

23 U. S. Military Leaders General Colin Powell General Norman Schwarzkopf

24 The Ground War

25 U. S. Female Soldiers Everywhere is a combat zone!

26 Range of Iraqi Missiles

27 Saddam Lobs SCUD Missiles Israel & Saudi Arabia: The fear of bio-chemical attacks.

28 President George H. W. Bush with General Schwartzkopf

29 Kuwait is Liberated

30 Allies March to Baghdad Iraqis cheer Allied forces. Iraqis soldiers surrender.

31 Highway of Death

32 400 Iraqi Oilfields on Fire An environmental disaster!

33 U. N. No-Fly Zones

34 1990s: Iraqi Targets

35

36 Reasons for Going to War Against Saddam (according to the U. S. and Britain) Saddam kicked out U.N. weapons inspectors. Saddam kicked out U.N. weapons inspectors. WMDs Weapons of Mass Destruction. WMDs Weapons of Mass Destruction. Saddam did not obey the No-Fly Zone limitations. Saddam did not obey the No-Fly Zone limitations. He was a savage dictator. He was a savage dictator. Stop Saddam before he can launch nuclear missiles against Israel, Europe, or even the United States. Stop Saddam before he can launch nuclear missiles against Israel, Europe, or even the United States.

37 Allied Advance on Baghdad

38 Shock & Awe! Coalition forces attack Baghdad (again).

39 Anti-War Protestors

40 Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf Saddams Minister of Information (better known as Baghdad Bob)

41 Baghdad Bob

42 The Dictator is Toppled

43 Mission Accomplished President George W. Bush lands on board the USS Abraham Lincoln (May, 2003) President George W. Bush lands on board the USS Abraham Lincoln (May, 2003)

44 Saddam Is Captured! December, 2003

45 The American Soldier: 2003

46 1800+ American Casualties

47 12,000+ Americans Wounded

48 Capt. Dawn Halfaker One of many female soldiers killed or wounded in Iraq.

49 20,000+ Iraqis Dead!

50 ? Iraqis Wounded!

51 A Growing Insurgency Former Baathists and foreign terrorists (Al-Qaida, etc.)

52

53 An Interim Iraqi Government is Created (June, 2004) Prime Minister Ayad Allawi

54 The Scandal at Abu Ghraib Prison

55 1/30/05 – The Vote! Courage at the Polls!!


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