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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests

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Motives for European Exploration 1.Gold 2.Glory 3.God.

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1 The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests
By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

2 Earlier Explorations Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca
A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271 Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources. Better seaworthy ships. Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”

3 Admiral Zheng He Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!

4 A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492

5 Motives for European Exploration
Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples. Reformation  refugees & missionaries. Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue. Technological advances. Fame and fortune.

6 New Maritime Technologies Better Maps [Portulan]
Hartman Astrolabe (1532) Mariner’s Compass Sextant

7 New Weapons Technology

8 Prince Henry, the Navigator
School for Navigation, 1419

9 Museum of Navigation in Lisbon

10 Portuguese Maritime Empire
Exploring the west coast of Africa. Bartolomeo Dias, 1487. Vasco da Gama, 1498. Calicut. Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).

11 Zheng He’s Voyages In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!

12 Christofo Colon [ ]

13 Columbus’ Four Voyages

14 Other Voyages of Exploration

15 Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16c

16 Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”

17 The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs
vs. Fernando Cortez Montezuma II

18 The Death of Montezuma II

19 Mexico Surrenders to Cortez

20 The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas
vs. Francisco Pizarro Atahualpa

21 Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill

22 Why would the 'Columbian Exchange' be considered the tsunami of unintentional "bio-terrorism"??

23 The “Columbian Exchange”
Squash Avocado Peppers Sweet Potatoes Turkey Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine Cocoa Pineapple Cassava POTATO Peanut TOMATO Vanilla MAIZE Syphilis Trinkets Liquor GUNS Olive COFFEE BEAN Banana Rice Onion Turnip Honeybee Barley Grape Peach SUGAR CANE Oats Citrus Fruits Pear Wheat HORSE Cattle Sheep Pigs Smallpox Flu Typhus Measles Malaria Diptheria Whooping Cough

24 Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Official European Colony!
Explorers Conquistadores Official European Colony! Missionaries Permanent Settlers

25 Treasures from the Americas!

26 Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

27 The Slave Trade Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.
Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. Sugar cane & sugar plantations. First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518. 275,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries. Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.

28 Slave Ship “Middle Passage”

29 “Coffin” Position Below Deck

30 African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships!

31 European Empires in the Americas

32 The Colonial Class System
Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Native Indians Black Slaves

33 Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World
Encomienda or forced labor. Council of the Indies. Viceroy. New Spain and Peru. Papal agreement.

34 The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral
Our Lady of Guadalupe Guadalajara Cathedral Spanish Mission

35 The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

36 Father Bartolome de Las Casas
New Laws  1542

37 New Colonial Rivals Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines. First English expedition to the Indies in 1591. Surat in NW India in 1608. Dutch arrive in India in 1595.

38 New Colonial Rivals

39 Impact of European Expansion
Native populations ravaged by disease. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [“Price Revolution”] New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”]. Deepened colonial rivalries.

40 5. New Patterns of World Trade

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