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AN INNOVATIVE, EXERCISED-BASED, 5-DAY SEMINAR AVAILABLE ON A PRIVATE BASIS Presented By JEFFREY J. DRAVIS Ph D Dravis Interests, Inc. 4133 Tennyson Houston, Texas 77005 (713) WEB: by Dravis Interests, Inc.

2 INTRODUCTION Please allow me to introduce a short presentation about my applied carbonate seminar. I am offering this seminar on a private basis, to be presented either at your offices or in a nearby facility. This highly-rated seminar will provide the training needed by any geoscientist or engineer involved in carbonate exploration or development geology projects. Each participant will come away from this seminar energized with an enhanced perspective on carbonate sequences, and with new ideas that can be applied in their daily work. I would greatly appreciate it if you could forward this on to those personnel within your company who make decisions regarding training of employees. Thank you very much - Jeff Dravis.

3 CARBONATE RESERVOIRS Carbonate rocks (limestones and dolostones) contain major oil and gas deposits throughout the world: * 33% of N. American Fields * 50% of N. American Giant Fields * ~40% of World’s Giant Fields Discovering carbonate plays is predicated on a sound understanding of the key controls that govern their occurrence and distribution, for a given geological period. Seismic is but one part of the equation. In addition, existing carbonate reservoirs can be exploited if one understands the basic play relationships, how these reservoirs are organized into depositional cycles, and how porosity and permeability relate to depositional facies and cyclicity.

4 PURPOSE The purpose of this seminar is to introduce participants to established principles of carbonate sedimentology applied to hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. Hydrocarbon play relationships associated with both shallow- and deep-marine sequences are emphasized, stressing the interrelationship between reservoir, source, seal and trapping mechanism. How one zones a carbonate reservoir to more effectively extract oil and gas is discussed as well.

5 APPROACH This seminar is taught under the basic premise that to predict or exploit plays, or even interpret seismic data and wells logs in carbonates, one needs a sound understanding of carbonate depositional systems (facies) and potential pathways for porosity and permeability evolution (diagenesis). One needs experience with the rocks! I have designed a five-day seminar that utilizes a sample-based lecture and exercise format. The seminar includes various rock description/interpretation exercises, a real exploration core problem with a suite of logs, and a stratigraphic-facies correlation exercise. Exercises tied to ten identical rock sets, comprised of samples from around the world, reiterate principles presented in lectures.

6 WHO IS THIS SEMINAR FOR? This seminar is intended for geologists, geophysicists, reservoir engineers and supervisors working or planning to work carbonate sequences. This is an excellent refresher course for those who have been away from carbonate projects for a while. Geologists with siliciclastic backgrounds working mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sequences benefit from this course as well. After this seminar, each participant will be able to describe and classify typical carbonate rocks, interpret facies relationships, delineate stratigraphic sequences and correlate facies within them, evaluate reservoir quality in limestones and dolostones, and better understand subsurface carbonate play relationships. Participants will be better prepared to initiate carbonate projects or evaluate carbonate prospects brought to them.

7 WHY A PRIVATE SEMINAR? There are several benefits to conducting a private version of this seminar in your office, or in a nearby facility: First, it is more cost-effective. More employees can be trained at one time. Second, employees do not have to travel, further minimizing costs. Third, participants are near their offices and can handle more easily any brushfires that arise. Fourth, sensitive play concepts/strategies can be discussed in complete confidentiality. Fifth, teams of professionals (geologist, geophysicist, engineer) can attend the seminar together. This fosters better communication between disciplines and enhances team work and productivity.

This seminar has been presented 69 times to industry, either on a private basis or in a public format open to all companies. Private versions of this seminar have been presented to Tenneco, Conoco (6 times), BP Canada, BP, Chevron, Exxon USA, Canadian Hunter Ltd., Union Pacific Resources, Marathon Oil, ADNOC, Chesapeake Energy (2 times), Occidental Oil & Gas (4 times), Baker Hughes (5 times), Suncor Energy, Devon Canada and Enerplus Resources.

Jeffrey J. Dravis (Ph D) is a technical consultant and instructor in carbonate geology with over 30 years of worldwide industry and field experience in all aspects of applied modern and ancient carbonate geology. This experience includes 8 years with Exxon Production Research Company where he headed up Exxon's worldwide training efforts in carbonates. Since 1987, he has taught 168 basic and advanced applied carbonate seminars. He has completed over 115 technical projects for clients, including reservoir studies in Texas (Paleozoic & Mesozoic), Devonian of W. Canada and Russia, Jurassic and Cretaceous of Gulf of Mexico, and Cretaceous of Tunisia; and exploration studies of the Jurassic Smackover/Haynesville and Cretaceous James Lime, Edwards and Glen Rose Limestones, Devonian/Mississippian of W. Canada, Pennsylvanian of Four Corners region, Mesozoic of western and northern Africa, Permian Khuff of Qatar, and Tertiary off of Nicaragua. See web site for details.

10 CLASSROOM FORMAT Typical classroom view showing participants with notebook and rock sets, as they work an exercise following a lecture.

11 TYPICAL LAB EXERCISE Participants work in groups of two, fostering discussion and sharing experiences. The labs reinforce the formal lectures. This format is more enjoyable and enhances learning.

12 SEMINAR MATERIALS Lectures are reinforced with exercises that use rock samples of cores and outcrops, augmented by thin sections. Thin section photographs are organized into a photo book. Each participant receives a CD containing representative photos of hand samples & thin sections.

Demonstration samples from all over the world, ranging in age from Holocene to Cambrian, are used to illustrate typical examples of carbonate skeletal and non-skeletal grains, textures and sedimentary structures, porosity types, and evaporites. Participants examine these samples before tackling the formal exercises.

Much of the fourth day of the seminar is devoted to a core description exercise that utilizes a suite of cores from a lower Cretaceous reefal and oolitic sequence in S. Texas. Participants discern depositional facies, cycles of sedimentation, and reservoir quality and relate each to log response. They present their results to the group. Each group discusses the plays evident in their core and evaluates the bigger-scale controls for each.

(Introduction to unique attributes of carbonate facies and controls on their deposition) 2. GRAIN TYPES (Non-skeletal and skeletal components of limestones; criteria for their recognition and environmental significance [exercise]) 3. CARBONATE CLASSIFICATIONS AND SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES (Review of popular classification schemes; discussion of typical sedimentary textures and structures inherent to carbonates, and their significance for interpreting environmental setting [exercise])

(Basic geochemical principles governing diagenetic reactions; carbonate mineralogies and their influence on diagenesis; diagenetic environments and associated processes and products, including cementation and porosity modification in marine, fresh water and burial diagenetic environments; diagenetic fabrics - their recognition and significance; controls on carbonate diagenesis; guidelines for predicting porosity trends in the subsurface; new techniques for more effective evaluation of diagenetic history and reservoir quality [exercise]) 5. DOLOMITIZATION AND POROSITY EVOLUTION (Review of geochemical principles governing dolomite formation; controls on dolomitization; review of standard models of dolomitization; porosity development/modification associated with dolomitization; review of new techniques to interpret facies and timing of porosity evolution in massive dolomites [exercise]) 6. CARBONATE POROSITY TYPES (Review of Choquette and Pray scheme for classifying carbonate pore types [exercise])

(Discussion of controls on facies occurrence and distribution; attributes and criteria for recognition of basinal facies, foreslope facies, platform reef systems, oolitic sand complexes, platform-interior grapestones, subtidal pelleted sands and lime muds, and carbonate tidal flats; Review of predictive end-member models: the ramp and platform with a steeply-dipping margin; use of Holocene two-dimensional models stressing comparative sedimentology, environmental relationships, geometries and preservable facies attributes; review of classical models of shallow-marine carbonate deposition from the Caribbean, Arabian Gulf and Australia) 8. VERTICAL DEPOSITIONAL SEQUENCES AND CYCLICITY (Facies components of ancient carbonate sequences and their upward-shoaling character; recognition of depositional sequences and cyclicity in outcrops and cores; major controls on depositional cyclicity; geometries within depositional cycles; geometries between depositional cycles; effects of progradation and backstepping on carbonate facies distribution and geometry; guidelines for predicting depositional cyclicity in ramps or steep-margined platform settings; use of depositional cyclicity for local and regional time-stratigraphic correlation - implications for exploration and development geology)

(Use of wireline logs in delineating carbonate facies and depositional cyclicity; pitfalls in log pattern correlations; seismic expression of carbonate buildups and other facies; pitfalls of seismic interpretation; evaluation of existing carbonate sequence stratigraphic models) 10. CORE PROBLEM (A suite of cores allows delegates the opportunity to interpret depositional facies, break out depositional cycles and vertical sequences, tie facies and porosity to cyclicity and log response, and assess regional depositional setting. In Texas, a suite of superb Lower Cretaceous cores are borrowed from the Bureau of Economic Geology in Austin and form the basis for the core problem. A suite of wireline logs is used with these cores. In Calgary, cores from a Devonian sequence can be easily substituted, using the facilities at the A.E.U.B. If the client has a series of cores from a basin of particular interest, these may be used as well)

(Discussion of a classification scheme relating physiographic setting to geometry of plays; review of reservoir, source, seal and trap relationships for conventional carbonate plays, including platform-margin sands, platform-margin reefs, platform-interior mounds, platform-interior subtidal muds and tidal flats, and downslope mounds; review of unconventional carbonate plays, in particular, foreslope deposits and basinal chalks; review of case studies are discussed for each play type; extensive bibliography) 12. USE OF DEPOSITIONAL CYCLICITY TO ZONE CARBONATE RESERVOIRS (Demonstrates how established principles of carbonate depositional cyclicity can be applied to more effective zonation of existing carbonate reservoirs; reviews tangible benefits which result from using this approach, including development of field extensions, wedge-edge prospects, improved well excellence and more effective recompletions)

(Exercise utilizing rock sample sets to reinforce key points discussed during the seminar. In this exercise, delegates are required to interpret facies and vertical sequences based on samples from four wells, develop a map depicting the regional physiographic setting, construct a time-stratigraphic cross section in which time-equivalent facies packages are correlated, and evaluate the merits of potential play relationships based on their cross section. This popular exercise challenges the delegates to apply all the information they have learned during the seminar [exercise]) NOTE: Discussions on evaporites and carbonate source rocks are integrated into some of the topics noted above. If desired, separate lectures on these two topics can be provided (see below): EVAPORITES (Controls on evaporite formation and distribution; review of environments of formation and models; depositional and diagenetic fabrics; interrelationships between evaporites and carbonate sequences) CARBONATE SOURCE ROCKS (Discussion of controls on preservation of organic matter in carbonate facies; review of models for predicting carbonate source rock potential; carbonate source rock case studies, including discussion of how various techniques and approaches aided a regional evaluation of hydrocarbon migration distances and pathways)

21 TYPICAL SCHEDULE - DAY 1 8:00 Course Overview
8:30 Distinctive Aspects of Carbonates 9:00 Coffee Break 9:15 Carbonate Non-Skeletal Grains 10:00 Lab: Non-Skeletal Grains 11:00 Review of Non-Skeletal Grains Lab 11:30 Lunch 12:30 Carbonate Skeletal Grains 1:15 Coffee Break 1:30 Carbonate Skeletal Grains - Continued 2:30 Lab: Skeletal Grains 3:45 Review of Skeletal Grains Lab 4:15 Carbonate Sedimentary Structures - Show and Tell 5:00 Adjourn

22 TYPICAL SCHEDULE - DAY 2 8:00 Carbonate Classifications
9:45 Lab: Carbonate Classifications 9:00 Coffee Break 9:15 Continuation of Lab 10:15 Review of Lab on Classifications 10:30 Limestone Diagenesis: Controls, Fabrics, Recognition, and Porosity Relationships 11:30 Lunch 12:30 Limestone Diagenesis - Continued 1:30 Coffee Break 1:45 Limestone Diagenesis - Continued 2:30 Lab: Diagenesis of Limestones 3:45 Review of Limestone Diagenesis Lab 4:15 Dolomitization: Introduction and Models of Formation 5:00 Adjourn

23 TYPICAL SCHEDULE - DAY 3 8:00 Dolomitization: Controls, Models, Recognition and Porosity Relationships 9:00 Coffee Break 9:15 Lab: Dolomitization 10:15 Review of Dolomitization Lab 10:45 Porosity in Carbonates 11:00 Lab: Carbonate Porosity Types 11:30 Lunch 12:30 Carbonate Facies Models: Steep Platforms 1:30 Coffee Break 1:45 Continuation of Lecture 2:45 Coffee Break 3:00 Continuation of Lecture 4:00 Coffee Break 4:15 Carbonate Facies Models: Ramp 5:00 Adjourn

24 TYPICAL SCHEDULE - DAY 4 8:00 Carbonate Depositional Sequences and Cyclicity 9:30 Coffee Break 9:45 Log and Seismic Expression of Carbonates 11:15 Introduction to Core Exercise 11:30 Lunch 12:30 Continuation of Core Exercise 3:00 Review of Core Exercise 5:00 Adjourn

25 TYPICAL SCHEDULE - DAY 5 8:00 Carbonate Play Types 9:00 Coffee Break
9:15 Carbonate Play Types - Continued 10:00 Coffee Break 10:30 Use of Depositional Cyclicity to Zone Carbonate Reservoirs 11:30 Lunch 12:30 Carbonate Facies Correlation Exercise 3:15 Review of Correlation Exercise 4:00 Adjourn

"This was one of the best 5-day courses I have taken - learned enough about carbonates that I could start a carbonate project and know where to look for help and what type of preparation I need, and that should help the company.” “Instructor was very knowledgeable and though-provoking. He appeared thoroughly competent in all aspects of carbonate geology, and possessed a very likable personality and temperament. Works very well with people." "It (this seminar) will help me as a development geologist to interject regional concepts into my interpretation." Quality of Instruction: "Excellent. Speaker was very articulate, open to questions and made an effort to walk around, ask questions and give advice during exercises." "The core and laboratory exercises were based on real exploration examples and were very effective.” "This course is especially useful for the siliciclastic-background geologist who is starting out in carbonates."

"Considering that I have never had any training in carbonates..., the course was very well run and organized and I learned a good deal about the subject matter." "Good all around course directed at petroleum problems and objectives. A good mixture of classical theory, case studies, new findings and practical applications." " Overall, I really enjoyed the class and gained a great deal from it. I will strongly recommend this course to other engineers." "It is obvious that Jeff has taught this course many times - excellent command of material and direction for the course. One of the best courses I've attended." "Enjoyed material and became excited about learning again by your relaxed and excellent teaching style." "Jeff Dravis has put together the best geologically-oriented course I have taken in my seven years with Conoco. Five stars!"

“Having very limited background in carbonates, I now have a solid foundation upon which I can better communicate with geologists in my group.” “The class shows how previous models may have overlooked potential reservoirs. We might be able to re-evaluate our areas and find new reserves.” “I work very closely with geologists and geophysicists. When reviewing plays, wells, cores, samples (drilling), this course will definitively help me interact with them much better.” “Authoritative, well-paced and clear instruction with clear, logical flow and good balance between theory and practical exercises.”

29 COSTS - TEXAS SEMINAR A flat fee of $18, 900 USD is charged for this seminar when it is presented in Houston or elsewhere within the State of Texas. The maximum number of participants is limited to 20. This fee includes: the course manual (700+ pages, keyed to lectures; with color viewgraphs [notebooks cost ~$225 each to reproduce]); all handouts; CD with color images of samples (rocks and thin sections) utilized in exercises; instructor’s time for preparation (2+ days); time for teaching (5 days); and any instructor’s travel and lodging expenses. Client is expected to provide a suitable room for lectures, and a room for the core exercise (4th day), as well as beverage/coffee service each day. This fee also covers charges for rental and shipping of cores (40 boxes+) from the Bureau of Economic Geology in Austin, Texas. Full teaching fee ($18, 900) is payable 15 days before the start of the seminar. For a seminar with 15 people, the per person cost is well below what a comparable public seminar would cost, and saves on travel and lodging costs.

For seminars presented outside of Houston or in Canada, the seminar fee remains the same. For seminars presented at other international locations, the fees are negotiable and will be somewhat higher. In areas outside of Texas, clients usually must substitute other cores for a core exercise (and assume costs), or fill the time with additional lectures of their choice. This time can be used to review the client’s carbonate projects or play prospects. Clients outside of Houston agree to reimburse expenses associated with shipping of notebooks, handouts, and other exercise materials (rock sets, photo books, etc.). Clients outside of Houston also agree to reimburse instructor for reasonable travel (business class for flights longer than 4 hours), and food and lodging expenses.

31 SCHEDULING OF SEMINAR Less than a one-month lead time is usually required to organize and prepare for an in-house seminar, if it is presented in Texas. Such a time framework also is contingent upon the instructor’s technical consulting load at the time, and the cores being available for rental from the Bureau of Economic Geology in Austin. For seminars held internationally, a one- to two-month lead time is normally required, but this varies depending on the country. Note that this seminar can be tailored to fit your needs and time framework. Two or more companies may consider a combined sponsorship of this seminar for their employees. If you have any questions, please contact Jeff Dravis at (713) or by at Thank you for your time (July, 2009)


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