Presentation on theme: "The Gene… …That changed the world. This will explain: What is a gene? What is a sex-linked trait? Identify Hemophilia Show the implications of ONE GENE."— Presentation transcript:
The Gene… …That changed the world
This will explain: What is a gene? What is a sex-linked trait? Identify Hemophilia Show the implications of ONE GENE on the ENTIRE COURSE OF 20 th CENTURY HISTORY!
WHAT IS A GENE? A gene is a portion of… A gene is a portion of… …DNA that codes for… …DNA that codes for… …a protein. …a protein. A gene is also called… A gene is also called… …an EXON, because it is… …an EXON, because it is… …expressed as a protein! …expressed as a protein!
WHAT IS A CHROMOSOME? A chromosome is a collection of… A chromosome is a collection of… …genes (exons) separated by… …genes (exons) separated by… …INTRONS (in between the exons, which code for… …NOTHING!
CHROMOSOMES… Come in pairs… Come in pairs… …one from each parent. …one from each parent. …They contain the same genes, but… …different alleles. HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS!
What is a sex-linked trait? It is more common in males, but also found in females. It is more common in males, but also found in females. It is recessive. It is recessive. It is found on the… It is found on the… …X Chromosome. …X Chromosome.
Sex Determination Does NOT mean you are determined to have sex! Does NOT mean you are determined to have sex! It refers to Females having… It refers to Females having… XX chromosomes XX chromosomes Males having… Males having… XY chromosomes XY chromosomes
What is Hemophilia? It is a blood clotting disorder. It is a blood clotting disorder. Victims lack ONE of EIGHT proteins required for blood to clot. Victims lack ONE of EIGHT proteins required for blood to clot. Victims may die from cuts…or bruises! Victims may die from cuts…or bruises! It is a… It is a… …sex-linked trait! …sex-linked trait!
Cast of Characters Englands Queen Victoria Englands Queen Victoria The Russian Royal Family: the Romanovs. The Russian Royal Family: the Romanovs. The Monk Rasputin The Monk Rasputin Lenin – Russias Communist leader to be Lenin – Russias Communist leader to be
Queen Victoria (1819 – 1901) …Ruled England for 64 years (1837 to 1901) …Ruled England for 64 years (1837 to 1901) …had many children. …had many children. …was a carrier for Hemophilia, which means she was… …was a carrier for Hemophilia, which means she was… HETEROZYGOUS! HETEROZYGOUS!
The Romanovs: Tsar Nicholas II The last Royal leader of Russia. The last Royal leader of Russia. He was forcibly removed from power, and… He was forcibly removed from power, and… …suffice to say that he was given a true burial only in 1999! …suffice to say that he was given a true burial only in 1999!
The Romanovs: Tsarina Alexandra She was Queen Victorias Granddaughter. She was also a German Princess, back in the days when royal marriages were the basis for strategic alliances. She inherited the allele for Hemophilia (a carrier).
The Romanovs: The Children There were 5 children, but only a male could be heir. Olga (b ) Tatiana (b – 1897) Maria (b – 1899) Anastasia (b – 1901) more on her later… Alexis (b – 1804) Alexis is the heir… Alexis is the heir… The Tsarevich! The Tsarevich!
The Romanovs: The Children MARIAOLGA
The Romanovs: The Children ANASTASIATATIANA
And what of the heir? As the only male, Alexis was destined to rule. As the son of a carrier of Hemophilia (Alexandra). He had a 50% chance of inheriting the allele for the disorder… X chromosome On the X chromosome He did inherit it… He was a Hemophiliac !
More on Alexis… Hemophilia could be fatal because the doctors didn't know how to treat it. Alexis was confined to bed for long periods of time. In 1912, he had an accident that nearly cost him his life causing him severe pain and fever. He suffered so much that he said to his mother: "When I'm dead, it will not hurt anymore, will it, Mama? He suffered so much that he said to his mother: "When I'm dead, it will not hurt anymore, will it, Mama? He did survive through the help of a man named Rasputin.
The EVIL ? Monk Rasputin Born in 1871, far from the capital of St. Petersburg. He was neither a monk, nor a priest, but members of the Russian Orthodox fell under his sway as he entered the imperial court.
Rasputins Healing Powers? He may have stopped the Tsarevichs screams of pain… …But he could not actually cure Alexiss Hemophilia! The Hemophilia did not kill Alexis…
Rasputins Influence… Due to his supposed healing powers, he was given unrivaled access to the Royal family. His corruption led to the growing distrust of the monarchy by the people.
The First Revolution (1905) The first revolution by the Mensheviks (those in the minority) was a failed attempt at a democratic nation. This led later (after Rasputin became involved) to another revolution…
The Setting: Russia during WW1 The suffering and unrest of the Russian people was great, especially given the economic disparity and shortages during the war. The distrust of the Tsarina added to the unrest.
The Communist Revolution The 2 nd revolution was a violent one… Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized power in October 1917, in the midst of the chaos of World War I.
Vladimir IIIyich Lenin (1870 – 1924) The father of Communism in Russia. He led the Bolshevik revolution which led to the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (USSR). He is body is displayed in Moscows Red Square.
Denoument: The Romanovs They were kidnapped during the revolution. All were assassinated on 7 – 17 – 1918! Their bodys were not found until late in the 20 th century!
Denoument: The myth of Anastasia Is was long assumed she survived the assassination. A Russian woman claimed for many years to be Anastasia. …But her body was later found with the rest of the Royal family.
The chain of History that Followed! The rise of Communism. The Fall of many eastern European countries. The Cold War. The Development of N.A.T.O. The buildup of the military during times of peace, at the expense of social programs.
The Conclusion? Biology cannot be separated from our lives. It not only affects us as individuals, but it also… Has had a profound effect on human history! Those interested should read up on infectious disease and history!