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…That changed the world

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Presentation on theme: "…That changed the world"— Presentation transcript:

1 …That changed the world
The Gene… …That changed the world

2 This will explain: What is a gene? What is a sex-linked trait?
Identify Hemophilia Show the implications of ONE GENE on the ENTIRE COURSE OF 20th CENTURY HISTORY!

3 WHAT IS A GENE? A gene is a portion of… …DNA that codes for…
…a protein. A gene is also called… …an EXON, because it is… …expressed as a protein!

4 WHAT IS A CHROMOSOME? A chromosome is a collection of…
…genes (exons) separated by… …INTRONS (in between the exons, which code for… …NOTHING!

5 CHROMOSOMES… Come in pairs… …one from each parent.
…They contain the same genes, but… …different alleles. HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS!

6 What is a sex-linked trait?
It is more common in males, but also found in females. It is recessive. It is found on the… …X Chromosome.

7 Sex Determination Does NOT mean you are determined to have sex!
It refers to Females having… XX chromosomes Males having… XY chromosomes

8 What is Hemophilia? It is a blood clotting disorder.
Victims lack ONE of EIGHT proteins required for blood to clot. Victims may die from cuts…or bruises! It is a… …sex-linked trait!

9 Cast of Characters England’s Queen Victoria
The Russian Royal Family: the Romanovs. The Monk Rasputin Lenin – Russia’s Communist leader to be


11 Queen Victoria (1819 – 1901) …Ruled England for 64 years (1837 to 1901) …had many children. …was a carrier for Hemophilia, which means she was… HETEROZYGOUS!

12 The Romanovs: Tsar Nicholas II
The last Royal leader of Russia. He was forcibly removed from power, and… …suffice to say that he was given a true burial only in 1999!

13 The Romanovs: Tsarina Alexandra
She was Queen Victoria’s Granddaughter. She was also a German Princess, back in the days when royal marriages were the basis for strategic alliances. She inherited the allele for Hemophilia (a carrier).

14 The Romanovs: The Children
There were 5 children, but only a male could be heir. Olga (b ) Tatiana (b – 1897) Maria (b – 1899) Anastasia (b – 1901) more on her later… Alexis (b – 1804) Alexis is the heir… The Tsarevich!

15 The Romanovs: The Children

16 The Romanovs: The Children

17 And what of the heir? As the only male, Alexis was “destined to rule.”
As the son of a carrier of Hemophilia (Alexandra). He had a 50% chance of inheriting the allele for the disorder… On the X chromosome He did inherit it… He was a Hemophiliac!

18 More on Alexis… Hemophilia could be fatal because the doctors didn't know how to treat it. Alexis was confined to bed for long periods of time. In 1912, he had an accident that nearly cost him his life causing him severe pain and fever. He suffered so much that he said to his mother: "When I'm dead, it will not hurt anymore, will it, Mama?“ He did survive through the help of a man named Rasputin.

19 The “EVIL” ? Monk Rasputin
Born in 1871, far from the capital of St. Petersburg. He was neither a monk, nor a priest, but members of the Russian Orthodox fell under his sway as he entered the imperial court.

20 Rasputin’s Healing Powers?
He may have stopped the Tsarevich’s screams of pain… …But he could not actually cure Alexis’s Hemophilia! The Hemophilia did not kill Alexis…

21 Rasputin’s Influence…
Due to his supposed healing powers, he was given unrivaled access to the Royal family. His corruption led to the growing distrust of the monarchy by the people.

22 The First Revolution (1905)
The first revolution by the Mensheviks (those in the minority) was a failed attempt at a democratic nation. This led later (after Rasputin became involved) to another revolution…

23 The Setting: Russia during WW1
The suffering and unrest of the Russian people was great, especially given the economic disparity and shortages during the war. The distrust of the Tsarina added to the unrest.

24 The Communist Revolution
The 2nd revolution was a violent one… Lenin and the Bolshevik’s seized power in October 1917, in the midst of the chaos of World War I.

25 Vladimir IIIyich Lenin (1870 – 1924)
The father of Communism in Russia. He led the Bolshevik revolution which led to the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (USSR). He is body is displayed in Moscow’s Red Square.

26 Denoument: The Romanovs
They were kidnapped during the revolution. All were assassinated on 7 – 17 – 1918! Their body’s were not found until late in the 20th century!

27 Denoument: The myth of Anastasia
Is was long assumed she survived the assassination. A Russian woman claimed for many years to be Anastasia. …But her body was later found with the rest of the Royal family.

28 The chain of History that Followed!
The rise of Communism. The Fall of many eastern European countries. The Cold War. The Development of N.A.T.O. The buildup of the military during times of peace, at the expense of social programs.

29 The Conclusion? Biology cannot be separated from our lives.
It not only affects us as individuals, but it also… Has had a profound effect on human history! Those interested should read up on infectious disease and history!

30 It is all about MAKING CONNECTIONS!

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