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Maternal Behavior Anne Neumann PSY 890 Psychopharmacology.

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Presentation on theme: "Maternal Behavior Anne Neumann PSY 890 Psychopharmacology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Maternal Behavior Anne Neumann PSY 890 Psychopharmacology

2 Maternal Behavior Any behavior that contributes directly to the survival of offspring that have left the body of the female (Nelson, 2005) Any behavior that contributes directly to the survival of offspring that have left the body of the female (Nelson, 2005) Sensitization/ concaveation: process whereby continuous exposure to young pups can induce maternal responsiveness in non-lactating female rodents (Rosenblatt, 1967) Sensitization/ concaveation: process whereby continuous exposure to young pups can induce maternal responsiveness in non-lactating female rodents (Rosenblatt, 1967)

3 Numan & Insel (2003)

4 Endocrine control of MB Moltz et al. (1970): Moltz et al. (1970): Ovariectomized nulliparous female rats were injected SC with EB over days 1-11, P over days 6-9 and Prol on days 9 and 10 Ovariectomized nulliparous female rats were injected SC with EB over days 1-11, P over days 6-9 and Prol on days 9 and 10 Control females: EB+P, P+Prol, EB + Prol, no hormones Control females: EB+P, P+Prol, EB + Prol, no hormones Females that received EB + P + Prol regimen had the shortest latencies to onset of MB (48 hours) Females that received EB + P + Prol regimen had the shortest latencies to onset of MB (48 hours) Females in the EB and P group showed moderate stimulation of MB (3 days) Females in the EB and P group showed moderate stimulation of MB (3 days) Females in P + Prol and EB + Prol groups did not differ from untreated females Females in P + Prol and EB + Prol groups did not differ from untreated females

5 Neuroanatomy of maternal behavior VNO accessory olfactory bulbs lateral olfactory tract medial nuclei of amygdala stria terminalis BNST/ MPOA VNO accessory olfactory bulbs lateral olfactory tract medial nuclei of amygdala stria terminalis BNST/ MPOA

6 Neurochemistry of MB Oxytocin Oxytocin Opioids Opioids Prolactin/Dopamine Prolactin/Dopamine

7 Oxytocin and MB Pedersen & Prange (1979): ICV oxytocin facilitates MB in virgin rats. Pedersen & Prange (1979): ICV oxytocin facilitates MB in virgin rats. Fahrbach et al (1986): Oxytocin could facilitate MB, only in females tested in a novel environment. Fahrbach et al (1986): Oxytocin could facilitate MB, only in females tested in a novel environment. Reducing oxytocin neurotransmission (oxytocin inhibitors, antagonists, lesions of PVN) inhibits onset of MB. Reducing oxytocin neurotransmission (oxytocin inhibitors, antagonists, lesions of PVN) inhibits onset of MB.

8 Oxytocin and MB Pedersen et al. (1982)

9 Oxytocin Insel & Harbaugh (1989)

10 Oxytocin receptor Oxytocin receptor: membrane-bound G-protein coupled receptor that along with the 3 vasopressin receptors form the OT-AVP receptor family Oxytocin receptor: membrane-bound G-protein coupled receptor that along with the 3 vasopressin receptors form the OT-AVP receptor family Oxytocin receptors: in uterus, kidney, and brain Oxytocin receptors: in uterus, kidney, and brain Facilitation of MB requires increase in central rather than peripheral oxytocin. Facilitation of MB requires increase in central rather than peripheral oxytocin. Oxytocins effects require estrogen priming. Oxytocins effects require estrogen priming.

11 Oxytocin Numan & Insel (2003)

12 Opioids and MB Both the content of β- endorphin in the MPOA and the density of 3H-nalaxone binding are decreased during day 12 of lactation relative to day 12 of pregnancy. Both the content of β- endorphin in the MPOA and the density of 3H-nalaxone binding are decreased during day 12 of lactation relative to day 12 of pregnancy. Parallel increases were found in ovariectomized females treated with both E and P relative to ovariectomized nontreated females. Parallel increases were found in ovariectomized females treated with both E and P relative to ovariectomized nontreated females. Hammer & Bridges (1987)

13 Opioids and MB Bridges & Grimm (1982): Morphine prevented the onset of maternal behavior and opiate receptor antagonist naloxone blocked morphine effects. Bridges & Grimm (1982): Morphine prevented the onset of maternal behavior and opiate receptor antagonist naloxone blocked morphine effects. Rubin & Bridges (1984): Morphine blocked maternal behavior in sensitized ovariectomized females, when placed into the MPOA, but not VMH. Rubin & Bridges (1984): Morphine blocked maternal behavior in sensitized ovariectomized females, when placed into the MPOA, but not VMH. Mann, Kinsley, & Bridges (1991): Morphine effects are mediated via the μ-receptor: ICV administration of β- endorphin or DAGO reduced maternal behavior for 1-3 hours, whereas other opioid agonists (DPDPE (δ), U50488H (κ)) failed to disrupt MB Mann, Kinsley, & Bridges (1991): Morphine effects are mediated via the μ-receptor: ICV administration of β- endorphin or DAGO reduced maternal behavior for 1-3 hours, whereas other opioid agonists (DPDPE (δ), U50488H (κ)) failed to disrupt MB

14 Prolactin and MB Acute administration of prolactin has never been shown to induce rapid- onset MB. Acute administration of prolactin has never been shown to induce rapid- onset MB. Lack of selective, high-affinity antagonists for prolactin receptors to decrease prolactin function Lack of selective, high-affinity antagonists for prolactin receptors to decrease prolactin function

15 Prolactin and MB Numan & Insel (2003)

16 References Bridges, R.S. & Grimm, C.T. (1982). Reversal of morphine disruption of maternal behavior by concurrent treatment with the opiate antagonist naloxone. Science, 218, Bridges, R.S. & Grimm, C.T. (1982). Reversal of morphine disruption of maternal behavior by concurrent treatment with the opiate antagonist naloxone. Science, 218, Hammer, R.P. & Bridges, R.S. (1987). Preoptic area opioids and opiate receptors increase during pregnancy and decrease during lactation. Brain Research, 420, Hammer, R.P. & Bridges, R.S. (1987). Preoptic area opioids and opiate receptors increase during pregnancy and decrease during lactation. Brain Research, 420, Insel, T.R. & Harbaugh, C.R. (1989). Lesions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus disrupt the initiation of maternal behavior. Physiology and Behavior, 45, Insel, T.R. & Harbaugh, C.R. (1989). Lesions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus disrupt the initiation of maternal behavior. Physiology and Behavior, 45, Moltz, H., Lubin, M., Leon, N., Numan, M. (1970). Hormonal induction of maternal behavior in the ovariectomized nulliparous rat. Physiology & Behavior, 5, Moltz, H., Lubin, M., Leon, N., Numan, M. (1970). Hormonal induction of maternal behavior in the ovariectomized nulliparous rat. Physiology & Behavior, 5, Numan, M. & Insel, T.R. (2003). The neurobiology of parental behavior. Springer: New York Numan, M. & Insel, T.R. (2003). The neurobiology of parental behavior. Springer: New York Pedersen, C.A., Ascher, J.A., Monroe, Y.L., Prange, A.J. Jr (1982). Oxytocin induces maternal behavior in virgin female rats. Science, 216, Pedersen, C.A., Ascher, J.A., Monroe, Y.L., Prange, A.J. Jr (1982). Oxytocin induces maternal behavior in virgin female rats. Science, 216, Pedersen, C.A., Caldwell, J.D., Walker, C., Ayers, G. & Mason, G.A. (1994). Oxytocin activates the postpartum onset of rat maternal behavior in the ventral tegmental area and medial preoptic areas. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, Pedersen, C.A., Caldwell, J.D., Walker, C., Ayers, G. & Mason, G.A. (1994). Oxytocin activates the postpartum onset of rat maternal behavior in the ventral tegmental area and medial preoptic areas. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, Pedersen, C.A. & Prange Jr., A.J. (1979). Induction of maternal behavior in virgin rats after intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 76, Pedersen, C.A. & Prange Jr., A.J. (1979). Induction of maternal behavior in virgin rats after intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 76, Thompson, A.C. & Kristal, M.B. (1996). Opioid stimulation in ventral tegmental area faciliates the onset of maternal behavior in rats. Brain Research, 743, Thompson, A.C. & Kristal, M.B. (1996). Opioid stimulation in ventral tegmental area faciliates the onset of maternal behavior in rats. Brain Research, 743,


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