Presentation on theme: "Endocrine System Glucometer"— Presentation transcript:
1 Endocrine System Glucometer Exercise 28Endocrine System GlucometerPortland Community CollegeBI 232
2 The endocrine systemDiverse collection of organs and tissues that contain endocrine glands.Glands secrete chemicals called hormones into blood capillariesHormones are transported to target cells at a distant locationHormone binds to a specific receptor and the cell responds to message.
3 Endocrine and Exocrine Exocrine glands secrete substances into ducts, which transport the secretions internal cavities of organs or to surface of the skin.
4 Effects of HormonesAreas receptive to hormones are called target cells and may be tissues or organs.Can have many effects such as growth, development, metabolism, etc.Many organs produce hormones such as heart, stomach and kidneys.
6 Pineal Gland Secretes: Melatonin Involved in circadian rhythms Day melatonin, Night melatoninProduces sleepiness
7 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) Hypothalamus produces a number of releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones.Stored in posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)ADH (antidiuretic hormone)Reduces urine output by increasing water reabsorption in the kidneyPlays small role in blood pressure regulationAlso called vasopressinOxytocinCauses uterine contractions in laborCauses milk let down in lactating mothers
8 Anterior lobe (Adenohypophysis) ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)Regulates the activity of the cortex of the adrenal glandTSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)Stimulates production and release of thyroid hormoneGH (growth hormone)Stimulates growth of bones, cartilage, muscleTiming and amount released determines body size
9 Endocrine Organs in Head PRL (prolactin)Stimulates breast developmentPromotes and maintains lactation after childbirthFSH (follicle stimulating hormone)Causes formation of ovarian follicles and stimulates them to produce estrogenStimulates sperm development in menLH (luteinizing hormone)Initiates ovulation, maintains corpus luteumRegulates testosterone production in males
10 Pituitary HistologyIntermediate lobe (part of the anterior lobe) produces melanocyte stimulating hormone
11 Thyroid Gland Secretes: Thyroid Hormone Regulates metabolic rate of the entire bodyImportant in development of the nervous systemCalcitoninDecreases bone reabsorption, lowering serum calcium levelsPTH (parathyroid hormone)Increases serum calciumDecreases serum phosphorus
15 ThymusActive in young individuals and plays a part in immunocompetency.Produces thymosin which causes maturation of T cells.T cells start out in bone marrow and migrate to thymusThe T cells migrate to lymph nodes and spleen to carry out their functions.
16 Hormones secreted by heart Heart: If blood volume is elevated above normal, cardiac muscle cells in the heart was secrete natriuretic peptides.Act on the kidneys to promote the loss of sodium ions and water.
17 Pancreas Secretes: Insulin (alpha cells) Released in response to high blood sugarIncreases cellular absorption of glucoseIncreases rate of lipogenesis and formation of glycogen in the liverGlucagon (beta cells)Released in response to low blood sugarElevates blood glucose levels by promoting the breakdown of glycogen.Somatostatin (delta cells)inhibit both Insulin and glucagon and may increase efficiency in digestion.
20 Adrenal Glands Secrete: Glucocorticoids (Cortisone) Released in response to stressIncreases formation of glucose from protein and fat breakdownDecreases inflammationAldosteroneIncreases blood volume by causing kidneys to retain sodium (where sodium goes water goes too) in exchange for potassiumIncreased blood volume will increase blood pressure
21 Adrenal Glands Androgens Are male sex hormones that are produced in small quantities and converted to estrogens (female sex hormones) when they enter the bloodEpinephrine & NorepinephrineFight or flight responseIncrease heart rate, increase skeletal muscle blood flow, decrease skin blood flow
23 Adrenal Cortex Zona Reticularis: Androgens Zona Fasiculata: Glucocorticoids (Cortisone)Zona Glomerulosa:Aldosterone
24 Hormones from the Kidneys ErythropoietinStimulates RBC productionCalcitriolStimulates calcium and phosphate absorptionStimulates calcium release from boneInhibits PTH secretion
25 Gonads Ovaries in females produce estrogens Testes in males produce testosteroneBoth are stimulated by FSH from anterior pituitaryInfluenced by LH which increases the level of hormone produced
26 TestisProduce testosterone responsible for secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair and expansion of larynx.Inhibin involved in negative feedback providing regulation of testosterone production
27 Testes seminiferous tubules where the sperm are produced The interstitial areas contain interstitial (Leydig) cells where the testosterone is produced.
28 OvaryProduce oocytes (eggs) and have an endocrine function by producing estrogen and progesteroneResponsible for secondary sex characteristics in women.Estrogen is a generic term for several hormones produced by females, including estradiol. Inhibin is also secreted by the ovary and regulates the levels of estrogen and progesterone.
29 Endocrine physiology experiment LH stimulates the final maturation of the oocyte and causes ovulation.About hours prior to ovulation there is a spike.Are there any students in the middle of your ovarian cycle like to volunteer to test for the presence of LH?If a woman has significant amounts of LH then the test strip produces a color (usually blue)
30 Glucometer ExerciseWe need 4 volunteers to let us test their blood glucose levels at 30 minute intervals.Measure glucose levelDrink soda or juiceAfter 30 min test again1 hour after drinking test againIf levels haven’t gone down after test again after 2 hours
31 Diabetes Type 1: Insulin Dependent Diabetes AKA: juvenile diabetes Caused by a lack of insulinAutoimmune disorderImmune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas
32 Diabetes Type 2: Non-Insulin Dependent Caused by an insensitivity of cells to insulin.Diabetes mellitus marked by hyperglycemia urine production (polyuria) thirst (polydipsia) eating (polyphagia)
33 Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus Normal blood glucose levels: mg/dlDiabetes mellitus:A fasting glucose level above 140 mg/dl on two separate occasions, orA blood sugar over 200 mg/dl 2 hours after oral glucose tolerance test with 75gm of glucoseImpaired Glucose Tolerance (Pre-Diabetes)A fasting glucose level between mg/dl on two separate occasions, orA blood sugar between mg/dl 2 hours after oral glucose tolerance test with 75gm of glucose