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introPDB2006q Meeting the need for Intercontinentally Understood Concepts and corresponding Intercontinentally Agreed Terms in Metrology (the 2007 edition.

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Presentation on theme: "introPDB2006q Meeting the need for Intercontinentally Understood Concepts and corresponding Intercontinentally Agreed Terms in Metrology (the 2007 edition."— Presentation transcript:

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2 introPDB2006q Meeting the need for Intercontinentally Understood Concepts and corresponding Intercontinentally Agreed Terms in Metrology (the 2007 edition of the revised 1993 VIM) Prof Dr P De Bièvre Independent Consultant on Metrology in Chemistry (MiC) (IRMM ) 3rd International Conference on Metrology TEL AVIV /15/16 © P De Bièvre TEL AVIV Nov 2006

3 © P De Bièvre 1999 CITAC SYDNEY Oct 2004: IUPAC-ACD WIEN Feb 2005: KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec MIKES HELSINKI Feb LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrolog Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB99136 traceability What is metrological traceability ?

4 PDB01132 Key 1 for MiC: Metrological Traceability (MTr) Property of a measurement result whereby the result can be related to a reference through a documented unbroken chain of calibrations, each contributing to the measurement uncertainty (proposed in VIM3) (2007) The reference can be 1. a reference quantity value carried by a : - a calibrator (measurement standard) such as carried by (or embodied in) a certified reference material - (the value of) a measurement unit (SI or other) 2. a quantity value obtained by an (internationally) agreed reference measurement procedure - when the measurand operationally defined A MTr chain to a common reference is a prerequisite for evaluating measurement uncertainty of a measurement result © P De Bièvre 2001: BUCURESTI – MARIBOR AL QAHERA Sep 2005: KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb Univ SAO PAULO Jul CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metr Soc Sep 3rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov

5 The establishment of the metrological traceability (chain) of a measurement result to astated reference, requires an a priori knowledge of the measurement procedure (at the stage of planning) During this process, it is also possible to make an a priori estimate of the measurement uncertainty of each link in the metrological traceability chain (thus establishing the structure of uncertainty budget) © P. De Bièvre 1999 StWEDEN Nov 2002: CERMM-3 ROGASKA Jun 2005: KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec KRISS DAEJEON Nov MIKES HELSINKI Feb LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congress Med Biochem Oct 3 rd Metrolog Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB9816

6 PDB02022b NMI - provided quantity value or Reference quantity value a) metrological traceability is established b) evaluation of relative measurement uncertainty of measurement result = relative measurement uncertainty of the ratio measurement + relative uncertainty of the stated reference © P De Bièvre GEEL Mar 2002 CERMM-3 ROGASKA Jun 2002 AL QAHERA Jan 2003 EILAT NOV 2003 IUPAC-ACD WIEN Feb 2004 MiC BEIJING Oct 2004 PDB02022 Field Measurement result (quantity value + measurement uncertainty) in material X measurement: unknown / known known quantity value + measurement uncertainty in stated metrological reference relative measurement uncertainty in measurement result = relative measurement uncertainty of ratio + relative measurement uncertainty of stated reference quantity value of stated metrological reference MiC BANGKOK Oct 2004 MiC STOCKHOLM Nov 2004 MIKES HELSINKI Feb 2005 JSI LJUBLJANA Sep 2005 KRISS DAEJEON Nov 2005 MIKES HELSINKI Feb 2005 NIS AL GIZA Dec 2005 LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb 2005 NIMT BANGKOK Nov 2005 KRISS DAEJEON Nov : KALPAKKAM Feb NPL DELHI Feb Univ SAO PAULO Jul CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metr Soc ZAGREB Sep XVIII IMEKO RIO Sep 3 rd Metr Conf TEL AVIV Nov

7 © P. De Bièvre Sao Paolo Dec : IUPAC-ACD WIEN Feb NIS AL GIZA Dec 2005: KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov 2006: NPL DELHI Feb Univ SAO PAULO Jul CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metr Soc Sep XVIII IMEKO Congr RIO Sep 3 rd Metr Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB03047 Source: P De Bièvre, Fresenius J Anal Chem 361 (1998) m ( X ) / m ( K ) = mass values of samples of material X and Y are comparable because they are measured in a ratio measurement relative to the mass K of the common prototype of the common unit kg [note that numerator and denominator being ratio-ed to the same unit, leads to a numerical value with unit one, symbol 1] amounts of a specified entity, here of element E in materials X and Y, are comparable because measured in number N of entities (same unit one) or in same bunch of entities (same unit mol) m ( Y ) / m ( K ) m ( X ) m ( Y ) N (E, X ) / N A = N (E, Y ) / N A n (E, X ) n (E, Y ) = N (E, X ) N (E, Y )

8 R i/j = K i/j. J i/j © P De Bièvre GEEL Nov : METROLOGIA SAO PAULO Dec 2005: GENT Mar JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov 2006: NPL DELHI Jan ISMAS MUNNAR Feb KALPAKKAM Feb CCQM SEVRES Apr ICAS 2006 MOSKVA Jun XVIII IMEKO RIO Sep FZ JUELICH Oct 3 rd MET Conf TEL-AVIV Nov PDB00108 Elements (symbol E) : N ( i E) N ( j E) = K ( i E + ) K ( j E + ). I (iE+)I (iE+) I (jE+)I (jE+) = K ( i E +, j E + ) J ( i E +, j E + ). Compounds (symbol Cp) : N ( i Cp) N ( j Cp) = K ( i Cp + ) K ( j Cp + ). I ( i Cp + ) I ( j Cp + ) Isotopes (symbol i E) : R i/j = K i/j. J i/j N ( j E) = K ( i E + ) K ( j E + ). I (iE+)I (iE+) I (jE+)I (jE+). We transform the problem of the measurement of a difficult-to-measure quantity (an amount ratio) into the measurement of an easy-to-measure quantity (an electric current ratio); the conversion factor K must be measured and its measurement uncertainty evaluated. R i/j = K i/j. J i/j N ( i E) = K ( i Cp +, j Cp + ). J ( i Cp +, j Cp + ) = K ( i E +, j E + ). J ( i E +, j E + )

9 R i/j = K i/j. J i/j © P De Bièvre GEEL Nov : METROLOGIA SAO PAULO Dec 2005: GENT Mar JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov 2006: NPL DELHI Jan ISMAS MUNNAR Feb KALPAKKAM Feb CCQM SEVRES Apr ICAS 2006 MOSKVA Jun XVIII IMEKO RIO Sep FZ JUELICH Oct 3 rd MET Conf TEL-AVIV Nov PDB00108 Elements (symbol E) : N ( i E) N ( j E) = K ( i E + ) K ( j E + ). I (iE+)I (iE+) I (jE+)I (jE+) = K ( i E +, j E + ) J ( i E +, j E + ). Compounds (symbol Cp) : N ( i Cp) N ( j Cp) = K ( i Cp + ) K ( j Cp + ). I ( i Cp + ) I ( j Cp + ) Isotopes (symbol i E) : R i/j = K i/j. J i/j N ( j E) = K ( i E + ) K ( j E + ). I (iE+)I (iE+) I (jE+)I (jE+). We transform the problem of the measurement of a difficult-to-measure quantity (an amount ratio) into the measurement of an easy-to-measure quantity (an electric current ratio); the conversion factor K must be measured and its measurement uncertainty evaluated. R i/j = K i/j. J i/j N ( i E) = K ( i Cp +, j Cp + ). J ( i Cp +, j Cp + ) = K ( i E +, j E + ). J ( i E +, j E + )

10 © P De Bièvre 2004 IUPAC-ACD WIEN Feb 2005: MIKES HELSINKI Feb LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrolog Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB99136a uncertainty What is measurement uncertainty ?

11 © P De Bièvre 1992: Geel 2002: 18th NASTEC NAANTALI Aug 2003: EA-LC TORINO Mar 2004: IUPAC-ACD WIEN Feb MiC BAHRAIN May EURACHEM PRAHA May CITAC BEIJING Oct MiC HONGKONG Oct 2005: JSI LJUBLJANA Sep 2006: Univ SAO PAULO Jul CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metr Soc Sep Congr RIO Sep 5 th Congr Med Biochem Oct 3 rd Metr Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB9952 Lab 1 and 2: DISCREPANCY PROBLEMNO PROBLEM Same measurand in same sample: DISCREPANCY PROBLEMS ARE MOSTLY CAUSED BY LACK OF FULL ( = GUM) EVALUATION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY (not so much by undetected systematic errors) Lab 1 and 2: NO DISCREPANCY Quantity value of measurand

12 PDB01133 Key 2 of MiC: Measurement uncertainty (MU) is a measure of doubt about the measurement result (not a measure of confidence in a so-called true value) 1.A measurement uncertainty i.e. the uncertainty of a measurement result, is generated automatically from the very moment one starts measuring 2.a measurement uncertainty is obtained through an evaluation process: - type A evaluation of measurement uncertainty - type B evaluation of measurement uncertainty (calculation only comes after these evaluations) © P De Bièvre 2001: BUCURESTI - MARIBOR - AL QAHERA Sep 2005: KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov : NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL-AVIV Nov

13 © P. De Bièvre 1998 SAO PAULO Dec 2004: SW CHEM SOC STOCKHOLM Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov 2005 MIKES HELSINKI Feb LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep XVIII IMEKO RIO Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov Key 2 for MiC: Measurement Uncertainty Type A evaluation of measurement uncertainty: evaluation of a component of measurement uncertainty by a statistical analysis of measured quantity values obtained under defined measurement conditions Type B evaluation of measurement uncertainty: evaluation of a component of measurement uncertainty other than type A evaluation of measurement uncertainty VIM3 (2007) (proposed) PDB9843

14 PDB understanding the process called measurement - is a prerequisite for deciding on the metrological traceability chain of the measurement result - which, in turn, is a prerequisite for the evaluation of measurement uncertainty 4. measurement uncertainty should be small enough for the intended use of the measurement result and need not be smaller (before the measurement is started, it is useful to decide on a target measurement uncertainty inspired by the intended use of the measurement result) © P De Bièvre 2001 BUCURESTI - MARIBOR - EL QAHIRA Sep 2002: TALLINN Mar 2005: KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrolog Conf TEL AVIV Nov

15 © P. De Bièvre SAPUZ Zürich July : MiC STOCKHOLM Nov MIKES HELSINKI Feb 2005: SIST LJUBLJANA Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb 2006 Univ SAO PAULO Jul CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem Oct 3 rd Metr Soc TEL AVIV Nov PDB9985 Measurement results without statements of reliability (uncertainty) should not be taken seriously VIM3 (2007) will now require measurement uncertainty to be part of the measurement result by definition Paul De Bièvre Accreditation and Quality Assurance Editorial, 2 (1997) 269

16 © P. De Bièvre 1999: HELSINKI June 2001: TrainMiC MARIBOR Oct 2004: INGFOR KØBENHAVN MayMiC BAHRAIN May 2005: J Stefan Inst LJUBLJANA Sep IMEKO OPATIJA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CITAC MOSKVA Jun Univ SAO PAULO Jul CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metr Soc Sep 5 th Congr Med Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB9976 ON THE AVERAGE THE DUCK WAS DEAD A hunter fired two barrels of a shotgun at a duck. The first hits two feet in front, the second hits two feet behind. On the average the duck was dead. What the hunter really wanted was roast duck on the table. In duck hunting one wants to keep trying until a single shot hits the mark. [Source: J Ruzicka 1980 (at the habilitaion of K Heydorn, KØBENHAVN)] (besides: it must be the first shot, or the duck is gone!) It is cheaper to perform less measurements, but have sufficiently small measurement uncertainty every time, than making many measurements and use the average

17 © P. De Bièvre 1999 SAPUZ Zürich July 2005: MIKES HELSINKI Feb LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem 3 rd Metrolog Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB9981 ISO/BIPM-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) the new approach re-establishes the responsibility of the analyst because evaluation of measurement uncertainty is a thinking process !

18 © P De Bièvre : Univ SAO PAULO Jul 5 th Croatian Congr POREC Oct 3 rd Metr Conf TEL AVIV Nov 2007: CCQM SEVRES Apr PDB06031 From the 1993 International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology to the 2007 International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and associated Terms in Metrology

19 PDB00121 We have several languages available to communicate about measurement : languages mathematical equations pictures sentences. It follows that we have to attach the same meaning to the same tools. No wonder that some of the oldest and most needed Commissions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) are Commissions on symbols, nomenclature, units: SUNAMCO for IUPAP, ICTNS for IUPAC. languages need tools: symbols pictogrammes terms © PDB KASTERLEE 2003: Feb 2004: MiC BAHRAIN May EURACHEM PRAHA May CITAC BEIJING Oct MiC HongKong Oct JSI LJUBLJANA 2006: CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc Sep 5th HR Congr Med Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov

20 © P De Bièvre 2002 KASTERLEE Feb RIO de JANEIRO Apr 2003: EILAT Nov 2004: Traceability KØBENHAVN May MiC BAHRAIN May PRAHA May MiC BEIJING Oct MiC BANGKOK Oct 2005: MIKES HELSINKI Feb KRISS DAEJON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov 2006: KALPAKKAM Univ SAO PAULO Jul CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metr Soc ZAGREB Sep XVIII IMEKO Congr Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metr Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB03043 The revision of VIM2 (yielding VIM3): 1.Improved internal consistency 2. Improved consistency of ISO Guides and Standards 3. More clarity which is important because no clarity, therefore no understanding, therefore no agreement possible to realize: - fair trade - implementation of EC Directives - mutual acceptance of measurement results e.g. in laboratory medicine

21 PDB03044a The revision of VIM2 (yielding VIM3): 4.fully takes on board chemical measurement for the very first time in history 5.uses the substitution principle: any concept used in the definition of another concept must be replaceable by the definition of that concept given elsewhere in the VIM; to make that clear, it is printed in bold 6.uses GUM, even if the definition of some GUM concepts are already up for refinement in GUM2 (which is not yet planned) © 2002: P De Bièvre KASTERLEE Nov 2003: EILAT Nov 2004: Traceability KØBENHAVN May EURACHEM PRAHA May MiC BEIJING Oct MiC BANGKOK Oct 2005: KRISS DAEJON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov MIKES HELSINKI Nov 2006: KALPAKKAM Feb Univ SAO PAULO Jul CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metr Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Bioch POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov

22 PDB03035 © IMEP IRMM : Traceability KØBENHAVN May MiC PRAHA May CITAC BEIJING Oct EURACHEM HONGKONG Oct 2005: LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb SIST LJUBLJANA Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS KOREA Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov 2006: CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep XVIII IMEKO RIO Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov

23 © P De Bièvre 2003: KASTERLEE 2006: CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB03041

24 PDB © IMEP 2003: IRMM 2005: SIST LJUBLJANA Feb 2004: Traceability KØBENHAVN May MiC PRAHA May CITAC BEIJING Oct EURACHEM HONGKONG Oct 2005: MIKES HELSINKI Feb LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrolog Conf TEL AVIV Nov

25 © P De Bièvre KASTERLEE 2003 PDB

26 © P De Bièvre KASTERLEE 2003 PDB200331

27 © IMEP th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB200332

28 © IMEP th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB200333

29 © IMEP th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB200334

30 © IMEP th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB200336

31 © IMEP th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB200337

32 © IMEP : Traceability KØBENHAVN May MiC PRAHA May CITAC BEIJING Oct EURACHEM HONGKONG Oct 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB

33 © IMEP : 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB200340

34 PDB05010 © P De Bièvre Feb interlaboratory_comparisons/imep/ index.htm IMEP REIMEP NUSIMEP

35 © P De Bièvre 2004 INGFOR KOEBENHAVN May 2005: KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2005: MIKES HELSINKI Feb LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB05003 Measurement uncertainty and sampling uncertainty, one more example of ambiguity: Does sampling uncertainty contribute to measurement uncertainty? that depends on the definition of the measurand which then influences the measurement procedure Source: Provetagning, Metrologi, Kemometri: den STORE sammenheng INGFOR KØBENHAVN

36 C IRMM 2000: GEEL Dec 2005: JSI LJUBLJANA Sep 2006: Univ SAO PAULO Jul CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metr Soc Sep XVIII IMEKO RIO Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB01015 Accredited (self-declaration) Non-accredited (self-declaration) No statement by participant Pb Results from all participants according to the self-declared accreditation status for this element. IMEP- 13 : Trace elements in polyethylene Certified range [U=k·u c (k=2)]: mmol·kg 2 'less than' value Accredited1 Non-accredited3 Values above 20%

37 c mmol·kg Deviation from centre of reference range in % Experienced laboratory (self-declaration) Less experienced laboratory (self-declaration) Non experienced laboratory (self-declaration) No statement by laboratory Pb Results from all participants. IMEP- 10 : Trace Elements in Polyethylene Certified reference range [ U = k · u c ( k =2)]: mmol·kg PDB9936d example of TMU of 15% around Reference Range © IMEP 1999 Orlando Feb 2002: PORTOROZ Sep AL QAHERA Jan 2004: IUPAC-ACD WIEN Feb BAHRAIN May EURACHEM PRAHA May MiC BANGKOK Oct 2005: SIST LJUBIJANA Feb KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec JSI LJUBLJANA Sep 2006: NPL DELHI Feb CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc Sep XVIII IMEKO RIO Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov

38 © IMEP : 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB Results

39 GEEL Dec 2000 PDB01003 IMEP-9 trace elements in water CCQM-K2 EUROMET AoS 332 Austria Japan Canada one material

40 © P De Bièvre : 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB01127 Describing measurement results a posteriori (the culture of statistics in chemical measurement) only describes a result in terms of a distribution of a set of values a posteriori Establishing the authority of a measurement result, can be done a priori : by deciding the metrological traceability chain; it can/must be done before the measurement

41 © P De Bièvre 2005 KASTERLEE Jan 2005: KRISS DAEJEON Nov 2006: CARDS ZAGREB Sep HR Metrol Soc ZAGREB Sep 5 th HR Congr Medic Biochem POREC Oct 3 rd Metrol Conf TEL AVIV Nov PDB05001 Life can only be understood BACKWARDS, but it must be lived FORWARDS S. Kierkegaard Danish philosopher

42 © P De Bièvre SAPUZ ZÜRICH July : NASTEC NAANTALI Aug 2005: IMEKO OPATIJA Sep NIMT BANGKOK Nov KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIS AL GIZA Dec 2006: NPL DELHI Feb KALPAKKAM Feb CITAC MOSKVA Jun SAO PAULO Jul ZAGREB Sep IMEKO RIO Sep POREC Oct MET CONF TEL-AVIV Nov PDB99121 The task is to demonstrate the scientific authority of the result of the measurement. This needs underpinning (Untermauerung) of the measurement result in order to lead to the necessary credibility.

43 PDB01144 Metrology in chemistry: The Hubble telescope... = the spectacles of the analytical chemist BEFOREAFTER © P Taylor GEEL Sep : MiC BEIJING Oct MiC BANGKOK Oct 2005: MIKES HELSINKI Feb LABQUALITY HELSINKI Feb SIST LJUBLJANA Feb JSI LJUBLJANA Sep KRISS DAEJEON Nov NIMT BANGKOK Nov 2006: KALPAKKAM Feb CITAC MOSKVA Jun SAO PAULO Jul ZAGREB Sep IMEKO RIO POREC Oct 3 rd MET Conf TEL-AVIV Nov


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