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Security Issues of Peer-to-Peer Systems February 14, 2001 OReilly Peer-to-Peer Conference Nelson Minar, CTO POPULAR POWER.

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Presentation on theme: "Security Issues of Peer-to-Peer Systems February 14, 2001 OReilly Peer-to-Peer Conference Nelson Minar, CTO POPULAR POWER."— Presentation transcript:

1 Security Issues of Peer-to-Peer Systems February 14, 2001 OReilly Peer-to-Peer Conference Nelson Minar, CTO POPULAR POWER

2 Overview Peer-to-peer security is hard Some old techniques, some new Example: Popular Power POPULAR POWER

3 Standard security concerns Someone stealing my data Virus infecting my computer Someone impersonating me Someone modifying my data POPULAR POWER

4 The Real Problem: the Network POPULAR POWER Anna Kournikova VBS/SST-A OnTheFly ILOVEYOU VBS/Loveletter.a Melissa Kalamars VBS Worm Generator Creative +50,000 more Stacheldraht Trinoo Tribe Flood Network

5 Client/Server Security: Understood Make a secure server Use firewall to restrict access to server Encrypt all communications Authenticate server to client Authenticate client to server (oops) Audit server: logs, tripwires, etc Pray you have no bugs POPULAR POWER

6 P2P Security is Harder Each computer is untrusted Peers don't have trust relationships Capacity for rapid spread of trouble Individuals can cause local damage that spreads Everyone can be running different software Code may be mobile; beware! Decentralization can make auditing difficult Complex systems: hard to understand POPULAR POWER

7 Security Tools (not Solutions!) Encryption Authentication Firewalls Trust and Reputation Sandboxes Frameworks: SSL, Intels PTPTL, etc. POPULAR POWER

8 Firewalls Good things –Easy to set up –Restrict access to a white list of allowed traffic –Single point of control Bad things –Unsubtle: Block all traffic on port, not application –Inflexible: Generally static rulesets –Single point of control Difficult for users inside network to influence Not an Internet-wide security solution POPULAR POWER

9 Trust and Reputation Mechanisms Give entities identities (pseudonymonous) Create reputation sharing mechanism –Assign reputations to entities –Allow others to retrieve reputations Use reputation to build trust relationships Example: eBay Example: Public key infrastructure –Verisign-style certificate hierarchies –PGP Web of Trust Peer to Peer / decentralized solutions POPULAR POWER

10 Secure Execution Environments Essential for mobile code systems! Traditional approaches –OS-based security –Ad-hoc mechanisms (VBS, Javascript, Emacs) Sandboxes –Java Virtual Machine –Inferno / Dis –C# / CLR NSA / VMWare: NetTop POPULAR POWER

11 Example Application: Popular Power Distributed computing –Centralized server –Untrusted clients –Mobile code Must protect four different groups: –Our own servers –Client computers –Customers submitting jobs –The Internet itself POPULAR POWER

12 Protecting Our Servers Standard Unix server protection –Firewalls –Validating all input (Java – no buffer overflows) –Auditing servers –Offline signature keys POPULAR POWER

13 Protecting Client Computers Threat model: Byzantine failure –Malicious code –Buggy code Secure execution environment –Java sandbox –Fine-grained policy model to add privileges Authentication –Cryptographic protection on files, communication POPULAR POWER

14 Protecting Job Submitters Theft of intellectual property –Obfuscation of code –Encryption of data –Shredding of computation –Time to crack vs. value of data Data manipulation – spoofing results –Redundant execution + verification –Reputations of client computers –Running checksums POPULAR POWER

15 Protecting the Internet Distributed denial of service –Load testing / quality of service monitoring –Malicious attack, or accident in programming –Careful authentication of job submission –Built-in failsafes in code –Built-in failsafes in system Play nice with firewalls Open question? POPULAR POWER

16 Conclusion There are lots of good security tools Peer-to-peer has hard problems Complex decentralized systems are inherently difficult to secure We have an ethical responsibility to create secure systems POPULAR POWER

17 Template POPULAR POWER


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