Two Instructional Models Directed instructional models Constructivist learning models
Directed Instructional Models behavioural theories Information processing theoies
Directed Instructional Models behavioural theories –learning as a sequence of stimulus and response action in the learner –linking together responses involving lower-level skills and create a learning ‘chain’ to teach higher-order skills
Directed Instructional Models behavioural theories –underlying trends in education behaviour modification techniques in classroom management programmed instruction
Teaching & Learning Strategies –Instructional cues to elicit correct response –Practice paired with target stimuli –Reinforcement for correct responses –Building fluency (get responses closer and closer to correct response) –Multiple opportunities/trials (Drill and practice) Directed Instructional Models
information-processing theories –viewed the process of learning in human beings as similar to computer processes information –information (senses) short-term memory long-term memory –knowledge is organized as a semantic network
Directed Instructional Models Characteristics: –Focus on teaching sequences of skills that begin with lower-level skills and build to higher-level skills –clearly state skill objectives with test items matched to them
Directed Instructional Models Characteristics: –stress more individualized work than group work –emphasize traditional teaching and assessment methods: lectures, skill worksheets, activities and tests with specific expected responses
Constructivist Learning Models Constructivist learning –learning through meaning making –knowledge is socially constructed –teachers provide scaffolding to bridge the zone of proximal development between various level of understanding
Five attributes of Meaningful Learning –Active (Manipulative/Observant) –Constructive (Articulative/Reflective) –Intentional (Reflective/Regulatory) –Authentic (Complex/Contextual) –Cooperative (Collaborative/Conversational) Constructivist Learning Models
In short, technology should engage learners in: 4knowledge construction, not reproduction 4conversation, not reception 4articulation, not repetition 4collaboration, not competition 4reflection, not prescription Constructivist Learning Models
Constructivist learning Models Characteristics: –focus on learning through posing problems, exploring possible answers, and developing products and presentations –pursue more global goals than specify general abilities such as problem solving and research skills
Constructivist learning Models Characteristics: –stress more group work –emphasize alternative learning and assessment methods: exploration of open-ended questions, doing research……, assessment by student portfolios ……, etc
Constructivist Checklist: –Apprenticeship learning –Scaffolding –Authentic assessment –Primary sources of data Constructivist learning Models
Activity (Reflection): What are the strengths and weaknesses of the two camps of instructional models? What are the impacts of these theories on CAL design and implementation?
Directed Instructional Models Needs addressed –individual pacing and remediation, especially when teacher time is limited –making learning path more efficient especially for instruction in low- level skills
Constructivist learning Models Needs addressed: –making skills more relevant to students’ experience –addressing motivation problems through interactive activities –teaching students how to work collaborative
Constructivist learning Models Needs addressed: –engaging students in activities that require higher-level skills
Situated View of Learning Nature of educational tools is defined by its use Learner construct their own concepts through experience All the components in the learning environment interact and contribute to the learning process
The perspectives Interactions Paradigm: a situated approach The distribution of intelligence in an educational setting should be taken into account:The distribution of intelligence in an educational setting should be taken into account: –teacher’s contribution: a live actor –students’ contribution: a group of live actors –designer’s contribution: a passive actor
Interaction between the teacher and student perspectives Teacher Designer Student
The interaction relates explicitly to the learning situation.The interaction relates explicitly to the learning situation. CAL foster some changes in the distribution of responsibilities for teaching and learning.CAL foster some changes in the distribution of responsibilities for teaching and learning. Interaction between the teacher and student perspectives
Role of StudentsRole of Students: – autonomy for their learning – responsibility for their learning – peer interaction
Interaction between the teacher and student perspectives Role of teacherRole of teacher: – – directing & controlling power – – emphasis on planning a pre- determined teaching plan – manage classroom resources – facilitate individual learners – plan individual students’ work – react to students’ initiatives
Interaction between the designer and student perspectives The interaction relates implicitly to the learning situation.The interaction relates implicitly to the learning situation.
Interaction between the designer and student perspectives Evaluation of a CAL capable of supporting a constructivist approach ?Evaluation of a CAL capable of supporting a constructivist approach ? Honebein, Duffy and Fisherman (1993) identify 3 conditions:Honebein, Duffy and Fisherman (1993) identify 3 conditions: –students’ sense of ownership ? –challenge user-control feelings ? –the use of personal solution in problem solving Encouraged ? Depressed ?
Interaction between the teacher and designer perspectives The interaction relates implicitly to the learning situation.The interaction relates implicitly to the learning situation. Designer’s perceptions of the curriculum Designer’s perceptions of the curriculum = Teacher’s perceptions of the curriculum = Teacher’s perceptions of the curriculum => Good software => Good software
Interaction between the teacher and designer perspectives Teachers have to work out the curriculum relevance of the softwareTeachers have to work out the curriculum relevance of the software –Explicit curriculum aims like CAL bundled with the text books assessment is straight forward (compare the aims of the software with the syllabus)
Interaction between the teacher and designer perspectives –Implicit curriculum aims or no curriculum aims like EXCEL and ENCARTA assessment is challenging (requires teacher’s imagination to impose their perceptions on the software)
Interaction between the teacher and designer perspectives Three tasks:Three tasks: –identify implicit curriculum aims of CAL –match aims of CAL (explicit and implicit) to perceived curriculum requirements –consider the educational possibilities of the use of software which initially has no explicit or implicit curriculum aims
Applying CAL to improve learning (Draper, 1998) Identify a real pedagogic problem how the invention is a solution to the pedagogic problem a neat bit of CAL design skilled administration of the teaching and learning using the technology evaluation and demonstration of the resulting learning gains
Activity By adopting the situated approach, evaluate the software ‘Exploring the Nardoo’.
References Squires, D. & McDougall, A. (1996) Software Evaluation: A Situated Approach, Journal of CAL, 12, 146-161. Squires, D. & McDougall, A. (1994) Choosing and Using Educational Software, London: The Falmer Press.. Scanlon, E. et al. (1998) Learning with computer: experiences of evaluation, Computers and Education, 30(1/2), 9-14. Draper, S.W. (1998) Niche-based success in CAL, Computers and Education, 30(1/2), 5-8. Gunn, C. (1996) CAL evaluation: what questions are being answered?, Computers and Education, 27(3/4), 9- 14.
Designing and Implementing CAL Program Planning - educational need, objectives, generate ideas about presentation of the content, project management Design - control of learning process, navigation, interactivity, screen layout, questions, feedback, multimedia stuff http://www.civeng.uct.ac.za/caleng/howto.htm