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Morphology The Structure of Words.

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Presentation on theme: "Morphology The Structure of Words."— Presentation transcript:

1 Morphology The Structure of Words

2 Morphemes Defined as, “a minimal unit of meaning”
Not the same as a syllable, which is a unit of sound (e.g., tuxedo has one morpheme and three syllables, while sixths has three morphemes and one syllable) Not the same as a word, although a word can contain only one morpheme (e.g., tree, tuxedo) Some morphemes are bound, meaning they can only appear attached to some other morpheme (e.g., -s, -ly, -un). Free morphemes can appear by themselves as words

3 Allomorphs Defined as “a variant of morpheme;” variant can be in pronunciation and/or spelling Examples: Hymn, hymnal -ible, -able, gullible/gullibility, usable Electric/electricity Condemn/condemnation

4 Inflectional vs. Derivational Morphology
Derivational Morphemes form new words, often changing the word class (part of speech) - E.g., bake/baker, legal/legalize Inflectional Morphemes make a different form of the same word, such as plural or past tense. The eight inflectional morphemes in English will be shown on the next slide.

5 English Inflectional Morphemes
On Nouns: Plural -s Possessive -’s On Verbs: 3rd person singular present tense -s Past tense -ed Part participle -en Present participle -ing On Adjectives: Comparative -er Superlative -est

6 Types of Morphology Affixation - adding an affix (prefix or suffix) to a root (e.g., en-list-ed) Compounding - combining two or more roots in a single word (e.g., eggplant, greenhouse) Internal Change - changing part of the root (e.g., sit/sat, foot/feet, mouse/mice) Suppletion - changing the root completely (e.g., good/better, is/am) Zero-Change - changing nothing (e.g., fish/fish, hit/hit)

7 Some Adjective Affixes

8 Some Noun Affixes

9 Some More Noun Affixes

10 Still More Noun Affixes

11 Some Verb and Negative Affixes

12 Word Classes (Parts of Speech)
Form Class Words Also known as “Content Words” and “Open Class Words” Have Semantic Content Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs Structure Class Words Also know as “Function Words” and “Closed Class Words” Have a Grammatical Function Pronouns, Articles, Prepositions, Auxiliaries…

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