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Environmental Impacts of an Ethanol Plant in the Missouri Ozarks for 2007 NACAA AM/PIC Grand Rapids, MI July 17, 2007 by Bob Schultheis Natural Resource.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Impacts of an Ethanol Plant in the Missouri Ozarks for 2007 NACAA AM/PIC Grand Rapids, MI July 17, 2007 by Bob Schultheis Natural Resource."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Impacts of an Ethanol Plant in the Missouri Ozarks for 2007 NACAA AM/PIC Grand Rapids, MI July 17, 2007 by Bob Schultheis Natural Resource Engineering Specialist

2 2 Why the Rush for Ethanol? $3 per gallon gasoline Demand for greater energy security Concern over relying on oil imports from politically volatile regions –Those opposing ethanol are branded as unpatriotic or supporting terrorism Growing worries about CO 2 contributing to global warming –Methane & nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are much bigger contributors Income for grain farmers & petroleum companies

3 3 Basics of Ethanol Production Ethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting grain and other carbohydrates This is an old process which traditionally has been used to produce ethanol for use as a beverage 97% of U.S. ethanol is made from corn

4 4 Ethanol Conversion Factors Corn – dry mill =2.75 gallons/bu = gal/ton (4.2 T/ac. = 150 bu./ac. = 410 gal./ac.) Corn – wet mill = 2.65 gallons/bu = gal/ton Grain sorghum = 2.70 gallons/bu = gal/ton Wheat =2.80 gallons/bu = gal/ton Barley = 1.40 gallons/bu = gal/ton Sugarcane = gal/ton (35 T/ac. = 680 gal./ac.) Sugar beets = gal/ton Molasses = gal/ton Raw sugar = gal/ton Refined sugar = gal/ton

5 5 Corn Starch Ethanol HFCS Germ Corn Gluten Meal Germ Meal Corn Germ Meal Gluten Bran Steepwater solubles Corn Gluten Feed Corn Oil Wet Milling Process

6 6 Dry Milling Process Corn Ethanol Stillage Thin Stillage Wet Distillers Grain Condensed Distillers Solubles Wet Distillers Grain with Solubles A bushel of corn will produce ~2.75 gallons of Ethanol, 17 lbs of CO 2 and 17 lbs of DDGS DDGS

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8 8 Environmental Considerations of Ethanol Production 1 More acreage being put into corn –Marginal land has lower yields & generally has higher erosion rates Sediment concern in water ways Nitrogen use for corn production –Marginal ground doesnt utilize fertilizer as well causing higher potential for nutrient runoff and leaching –U.S. nitrogen sources = Russia, Trinidad & Tobago –Made from foreign oil & natural gas

9 9 Environmental Considerations of Ethanol Production 2 Atrazine runoff concerns –Whether in water or attached to soil, atrazine use for weed control has higher potential to runoff into water bodies –If not wisely managed in targeted watersheds, it may be banned in all watersheds Water demand –Growing the corn = 1450 gallons per 1 gal. ethanol (600,000 gal./ac./season ÷ 150 bu./ac. ÷ 2.75 gal./bu.) –Making ethanol = 3-5 gallons per 1 gal. ethanol Air emissions of the ethanol plants

10 10 Environmental Considerations of Ethanol Production 3 High P, K and S content of DDGs as feed Ethanol cannot be transported by pipeline –Truck fuel use & air emissions to transport it Underwriters Laboratories (UL) has not issued safety approval for E85 pumps Is U.S. ethanol replacing foreign oil or domestic oil?

11 11 Economic Considerations of Ethanol Production $.51/gallon federal excise tax credit –5.1 cents/gallon for 10% blend –Government tax incentives used since 1978 to make ethanol competitive with gasoline $.54/gallon federal tariff on imported ethanol States may also offer incentives –Missouri = $.20/gallon producer tax credit on first 12.5 million gallons

12 12 Economic Considerations of Ethanol Use E10 = negligible MPG loss –3% less energy per gallon than gasoline points higher octane rating E85 = 15-20% MPG loss, depending on driving habits and terrain –27% less energy per gallon than gasoline + 13 points higher octane rating Only select vehicles can burn E85 –Flex-Fuel Vehicles or FFVs built mostly after 1999 –Corrosion-resistant stainless steel gas tanks and Teflon-lined fuel lines

13 13 U.S. Gasoline Usage, Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration

14 14 Ethanol Production, Source: Renewable Fuels Association

15 15 Gas & Ethanol Production, Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration

16 16 U.S. Gasoline Usage Mandating 10% ethanol in all gasoline would require that nearly half of the U.S. corn crop be processed into ethanol If all U.S. corn were made into ethanol, it would produce 31 billion gallons per year To replace all U.S. gasoline would require 78.6 billion bushels of corn annually Source: FAPRI 2006

17 17 Webster County Groundwater Impact Committee (Appointed 8/23/06 by County Commission, dissolved 11/18/06) Bob Schultheis - Natural resource engineering specialist Marshfield, MO (Committee Chair) Larry Alberty - Fordland area businessman Fordland, MO Karen Asher - Seymour area farmer Seymour, MO Joe Blaine - Soil scientist Seymour, MO Joyce Noland - District technician, Webster County SWCD Marshfield, MO

18 18 Proposed Gulfstream Bioflex Energy ethanol plant site is in James River Basin Watershed of southwest Missouri Map source:

19 19 Equivalent Residential Demand 880 GPM water = 21, GPD 10,000 KwH = 5, KwH per month

20 20 Webster County Demographics 7th fastest growing in population in Missouri –35,500+ people in th lowest (out of 114 counties) in per capita income Pasture-based livestock production –2nd in Missouri for dairy cows –5th in Missouri for hay production Almost no grain production No planning and zoning regulations Second-highest elevation in the state Residents rely entirely on drilled wells for water –Groundwater recharged by precipitation

21 21 Geology of Missouri

22 22 Geology of SW Missouri

23 23 Geology of Webster County Top of the Ozarks Starting point for 5 rivers in Missouri 1495 ft ft ft. Marshfield Rogersville Seymour

24 24 Geology of Ethanol Plant Site

25 25 Karst Regions of the U.S.

26 26 Pollution Risk Areas

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28 28 Losing streams leak water underground in unpredictable directions with little or no filtering

29 29 Sinkholes are direct conduits for surface water to travel underground

30 30 Solution Channel

31 31 Proposed site: NE¼ of Section 15, Township 28N, Range 19W in Webster County, MO

32 32 Soils are wet-natured due to a restrictive layer approximately two feet below the surface.

33 33 Gulfstream Bioflex Energy, LLC New corporation located in Mt. Vernon, MO Privately owned; not a farmer cooperative One of partners is in the petroleum trucking business No previous experience with ethanol Building contractor expertise is community buildings & Branson theaters First engineering firm quit because they were not getting paid Conflicting information from the partners

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36 36 GBE Reasons for Site Selection Yes –Lay of the land –Proximity to a natural gas pipeline –Easy access to railroad & four-lane highway –Can ship corn cheaper than shipping ethanol –90% of grain arrive by rail, 10% by truck No –Large livestock industry in southern Missouri –Planning and zoning never came to mind

37 37 GBE Ethanol Plant Estimates 1 Inputs 194 rail cars per week (data from GBE) 3,500 bushels per rail car 2.70 gallons of ethanol per bushel 4.84 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol 17.0 pounds of DDGs per bushel of grain 24 hours per day of operations 50 weeks of operation per year 10,000 KwH electrical demand, if no gas used (data from GBE)

38 38 GBE Ethanol Plant Estimates 2 Outputs 97,000 bushels of grain processed per day 825 tons of DDGs produced per day 261,900 GPD of ethanol produced 1,833,300 gallons of ethanol produced per week (data from GBE) 76 rail cars per 24,000 gal. each 1,267,600 GPD of water required per day 880 GPM of water (data from GBE) 47 acre-inches of water per day (if irrigated)

39 39 Water Law in Missouri Riparian water doctrine –Landowners are allowed to take all the water they want as long as they leave a reasonable amount for everyone else –Reasonable is determined by decision of lawsuit filed in circuit court Citizens for Groundwater Protection sued to stop GBE –Circuit court ruled in favor of GBE –Case is currently being appealed

40 40 Possible well locations to give 2000-foot separation distance

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43 43 Static water tableHigh-capacity well Existing wells Initial cone of depression Cone of depression Long-term cone of depression

44 44 What Happens to Discharge Water? Unclear from GBE how much water will be discharged 880 GPM = 47 acre-inches per day Soils will hold total of inches of water Annual precipitation and evaporation are nearly equal Rest must be discharged to drainage-ways or irrigated How much will recycling concentrate the discharge water? Whats in it?

45 45 Equivalent Conversions 880 GPM water = 21, GPD = 3,520-unit housing 6 people per house = ,000 sq.ft. per lot 10,000 KwH = 5,100 1,400 KwH per month 825 tons DDGs/day = 550,000 head of 3 lbs. fed per day = 3,790 acres of 300 sq.ft. per animal

46 46 Other Considerations Noise from hammermills & dryers Light pollution Odor Air emissions –EPA rule change on 4/12/07 increased allowable levels from 100 tons/year to 250 tons/year) Safety from explosion and fire Traffic on Highway 60 and railroad

47 47 Property is in two school districts and two fire districts

48 48 Predominant wind direction for April-September is from SSE to NNW

49 49 Will the Jobs Help the County? outside workers during construction = $2.1 million annual payroll –Rail car loading/unloading –Scale operators for weighing trucks –Laboratory personnel –Clerical workers Will all employees live in Webster County and buy here? No revenue to county government due to 11/05 property tax levy rollback for sales tax

50 50 Summary – Big Picture Questions Is ethanol from corn sustainable? Does it reduce energy needs from foreign sources? Would the site pass an environmental impact study? Are natural resources available to support a plant without damaging others? Can the plant be converted to cellulosic ethanol?

51 51 For More Information, Contact: Click on Ethanol Plant Development link at Paul Ipock Webster County Presiding Commissioner Courthouse, 1st Floor Marshfield, MO (Mondays or Tuesdays) (County Clerk)

52 52 Questions??? Robert A. (Bob) Schultheis Natural Resource Engineering Specialist Webster County Extension Center 800 S. Marshall St. Marshfield, MO Voice: Fax: Web:

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