Ultra Urban Environment Increasing: Increasing: impervious areas impervious areas land value land value Decreasing Decreasing land availability land availability Increasing Need for: Increasing Need for: Space Efficient Best Management Practices
Lesson 2: Sample Collection Grab samplesFlow-paced auto samples
One Grab = One SnapshotMultiple Grabs =Multiple Snapshots
Lesson 3: Site Selection - Location Currituck Gas House Barco, NC
Trench Drain from up-hill side of pumps Trench Drain on down-hill side of Oil-Water separator Canopy drain StormFilter Vault Bypass/Diversion manhole Outlet junction manhole Lesson 3: Site Selection - Simplicity
Eliminate Variables and External Influences (MEP) Lesson: All fuel islands should have an Oil/Water Separator
Lesson 4: Learn the 1 st Law of Monitoring: What Can Go Wrong, Will Go Wrong!
Once upon a time, there was this site... 10/02System Maintenance 10/02System Maintenance 10/02Remote automated sampling equipment Installed 10/02Remote automated sampling equipment Installed 11/02 Remote automated sampling equipment disabled by insect infestation 11/02 Remote automated sampling equipment disabled by insect infestation
As Luck Would Have It (or not): 1-2/03Storm Capture 1-2/03Storm Capture 5/03Phone Line Disabled by Lightning 5/03Phone Line Disabled by Lightning 6/03Automated Sampling Equipment Fried by Lightning 6/03Automated Sampling Equipment Fried by Lightning
But then... 9/03New Automated Sampling Equipment Installed 9/03New Automated Sampling Equipment Installed 9/03System Outfall Area Impacted by Adjacent Construction Activities and Heavy Storms 9/03System Outfall Area Impacted by Adjacent Construction Activities and Heavy Storms
Before After 2/04Outfall Area Restored 2/04Outfall Area Restored
The Saga Continues: 3/04Storm Capture 3/04Storm Capture 8-9/04Phone lines and Automated Sampling Equipment Disabled by Lightning (again); AND 8-9/04Phone lines and Automated Sampling Equipment Disabled by Lightning (again); AND
We Got Better! Days with measurable precipitation 68 Qualified Storm Events - (meet DQO of >0.1 in. and >72 hr. antecedent conditions); hindsight 35 Attempts to capture storm samples 23 Successful Captures (10) vs. Opportunities (35) 29% Successful Captures (10) vs. Attempts (23) 43% Early 2000s success rate – Captures vs. Atts. 10%
Key Elements to a Successful Field Monitoring Project Clearly defined Clearly defined Project Goals Project Goals Data Quality Objectives Data Quality Objectives Methods Methods Appropriate Site Selection Appropriate Site Selection Dedicated Project Team
Adaptive management in action From: Restoration of Puget Sound Rivers Ralph and Poole, 2003 As Conceived in Consensus Building Process As Designed in Consensus Building Process
As generally implemented Adaptive management in pieces
Experimentation in the Urban Environment Were running out of experimental opportunities!
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