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NACAA AM/PIC 2007 Invasive Species: Arrive, Survive, and Thrive Chris DiFonzo Field Crops Entomology Michigan State University Tiny Terrors… The Soybean.

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Presentation on theme: "NACAA AM/PIC 2007 Invasive Species: Arrive, Survive, and Thrive Chris DiFonzo Field Crops Entomology Michigan State University Tiny Terrors… The Soybean."— Presentation transcript:

1 NACAA AM/PIC 2007 Invasive Species: Arrive, Survive, and Thrive Chris DiFonzo Field Crops Entomology Michigan State University Tiny Terrors… The Soybean Aphid

2 the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura Winter eggs March fundatrix Secondary host: Glycine max (soybean) June July August oviparae Primary host: Rhamnus spp. (buckthorn) Fall gynoparae males Sept

3 General Invasion Process Arrive Survive Thrive

4 ARRIVE Australia 1999 U.S. 2000

5 Trade and Tourists - direct flights from Asia to Detroit, Chicago, Minneapolis - increase in goods imported from Asia ARRIE

6 2000 Discovery Based on an original map by Rob Venette, U.S. Forest Service Quebec Ontario Introduction near Chicago? Aphids on plant material? ARRIVE

7 Lack of Attention No-brainer crop, GM crop Plant - RoundUp - Harvest Didnt notice initial colonizers Unexploited resource - secondary host (soybean) present - few economic soybean insect pests in the Midwest SURVIVEARRIVE

8 Reproductive biology of aphids Partheno- genesis Born pregnant Live Birth SURVIVE

9 key: Presence of the Primary host Rhamnus cathartica - also non native & invasive SURVIVE

10 D. Voegtlin (INHS), Quad Cities, Fall 2006

11 Ontario Quebec 2004 distribution THRIVESURVIVE

12 High Reproductive Capacity [Ragsdale lab, Univ. of Minnesota] Temp 68 o F 77 o F 86 o F 95 o F Doublingtime(days) 21.5 --- Total#nymphs 75 73 23 0 THRIVE

13 Tremendous ability to disperse Avg 7,000 SBA per plant X plant population X 90% alatoid Potential for 800 million winged SBA generated per acre in early August. Saginaw MI, August 1st, 2001 THRIVE

14 SBA landing on a calm morning. East Lansing, 2005

15 Jays debug the Orioles. Insects take over SkyDome - Toronto crushes Baltimore By John McCauley bluejays.com 8/3/2001 Toronto invaded by swarms of aphids. Clouds of bugs descend on downtown streets Aug. 3, 2001. At least they weren't killer bees.

16 Inadequate or poorly-timed biocontrol entomo- pathogens infect late THRIVE native & non-native predators cant keep up some years lack of parasitoids

17 THRIVE Outbreaks: 2001, 2003, 2005, some in 2007

18 Feeding from large #s of Aphids - sucks plant juices - specialized gut removes sugar - amino acid limited Honey dew Sooty mold Other problems:

19 Impact of direct feeding (thousands of SBA per plant) 8-29-05 Mervyn Erb Early (June) infestation Mid/late (July/Aug) infestation

20 Other impacts of aphid feeding - nutrients deficiencies (potassium) may increase loss K deficient adequate K

21 Local Impact – Yield Loss - plant height - leaf drop - # nodes per plant - # pods per node - # beans per pod - bean quality 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 UNT D 17 (-70%) Yield, bu/acre Saginaw County, MI 2005 CRU C 30 (-40%) CRU + WAR A 50 WAR B 36 (-30%)

22 Landscape Impact – Virus transmission Avg # of aphids per trap in squash field (Peaks are made up primarily soybean aphids) 0 40 80 120 160 JuneJulyAugust 25923622272163013 Western MI, 2003 # SBA per trap

23 SBA outbreak years (01, 03, 05) in Michigan Bean common mosaic Cucumber mosaic Watermelon mosaic Zucchini yellows Potato virus Y

24 Economic & Social Impact – Increased pesticide use 1999 NASS Survey IL < 1% 1 OH <1% 1 IN 0% 0 MI 0% 0 MN 0% 0 % acreage # of products (permethrin, chlorpyrifos) 2005 NASS Survey IL 9% OH 18% IN 18% MI 42% MN 30% (permethrin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, esfenvalerate bifenthrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, methyl parathion, thiamethoxam) % acreage # of products ---------------------10---------------------

25 Post-detection of SBA Concentrated on insecticides - scouting techniques - thresholds - improve application technology Introduction of soybean rust: the best thing that ever happened to soybean aphid - increased focus on scouting, spray technology

26 Aphid Suction Trap Network - annual prediction http://www.ncipmc.org/traps/

27 Medium term: Classical biocontrol Foreign collection Climate matching Quarantine, testing Field release

28 Long term: Host Plant resistance Pictures courtesy of Dr. Duchen Wang MSU Soybean Breeder Susceptible accession Resistant accession

29 A source for more information: Annals of the Entomological Society of America Vol. 97, No. 2, March 2004 SPECIAL FEATURE ON SOYBEAN APHID Soybean Aphid Biology in North America Soybean Aphid in China Assessing the SBA Invasion Aphid identification Suitability of Overwintering Hosts Population Dynamics in China Soybean Aphid Predators Prospects for Classical Biological Control


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