3WHAT IS GLOBAL CHANGE?Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land, oceans, water resources, atmospheric chemistry and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the earth to sustain life.This perspective also recognizes the profound socioeconomic and ecological implications of global environmental change.
4WHAT ARE THESE CHANGES?Changes in the natural and human-induced forces affecting the earth systemChanges in ecosystemsChanges and variability in earth system attributes that directly affect natural and human activitiesChanges in human communities, organizations, societies, and economies
5WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE?Climate change refers to the variation in the Earth's global climate or in regional climates over time. It describes changes in the variability or average state of the atmosphere over time scales ranging from decades to millions of years.These changes can be caused by processes internal to the Earth, external forces (e.g. variations in sunlight intensity) or, more recently, human activities.
6GLOBAL CHANGE IS THE RESULT OF CLIMATE FORCING Climate is the average weather, including seasonal extremes and variations, locally, regionally or across the globe.Climate is controlled by the long-term balance of energy of the earth and its atmosphere.
7PHYSICAL CONTROLS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Solar Radiation: changes in solar output directly influence the radiative environment and energy budget at the earth’s surface, the response of the climate system and the response of all life forms.Atmospheric composition: changes in atmospheric composition directly influence the transfer of radiative energy throughout the atmospheric column and therefore the energy balance throughout the earth’s surface.
10WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING?Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation.The term "global warming" is a specific example of the broader term climate change, which can also refer to global cooling. In common usage the term refers to recent warming and implies a human influence.
15Climate change can be caused by processes internal to the Earth, external forces (e.g. variations in sunlight intensity) or, more recently, human activities.The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) uses the term "climate change" for human-caused change, and "climate variability" for other changes. The term "anthropogenic climate change" is sometimes used when focusing on human-induced changes.
16"Warming of the climate system is unequivocal." "Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations."
19$25 Million Offered In Climate Challenge Tycoon Hopes to Spur Milestone Research By Kevin Sullivan Washington Post Foreign Service Saturday, February 10, 2007LONDON, Feb British billionaire entrepreneur Richard Branson, with former vice president Al Gore at his side, offered a $25 million prize Friday to anyone who can come up with a way to blunt global climate change by removing at least a billion tons of carbon dioxide a year from the Earth's atmosphere. The winner of the contest must devise a plan to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere without creating adverse effects. The first $5 million would be paid upfront, and the remainder of the money would be paid only after the program had worked successfully for 10 years.
20Climate Change Worries Military Advisers Morning Edition, April 16, 2007 · We're used to hearing scientists warn us about climate change. Now a group of retired generals and admirals says global warming could provoke serious national security threats.Climate change could create land loss, mass migrations, loss of natural resources, and increased demands on water that may exacerbate or cause conflict — "all things that could have some sort of effect on our security interests around the world," says retired Gen. Anthony Zinni, a member of the military advisory panel.Findings:1. Projected climate change poses a serious threat to America's national security.2. Climate change acts increases the potential instability in some of the most volatile regions of the world.3. Projected climate change will boost tensions even in stable regions.4. Climate change, national security and energy dependence are a related set of global challenges.
21Climate Change a Homeland Security Issue at Senate WASHINGTON – At a Committee hearing on April 19, 2007, entitled, “Dangerous Exposure: The Impact of Global Warming on Private and Federal Insurance,” the Government Accountability Office (GAO) released a report – commissioned by Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee Chairman Joe Lieberman, ID-Conn., and Ranking Member Susan Collins, R-Me., Lieberman and Collins two years earlier –assessing the fiscal impacts that unchecked global warming will have on the taxpayer-funded Federal Crop Insurance Corporation and National Flood Insurance Program. Through those programs, American taxpayers are exposed to many billions of dollars in claims for the losses that result from the very weather catastrophes that are projected to intensify due to global warming.
22NJ enacts anti-global warming law New Jersey became the third state in the nation to enact a comprehensive greenhouse gas reduction law Friday, requiring the Garden State to significantly cut emissions of global-warming gases. California and Hawaii have adopted similar laws, and eight other states are considering them.The legislation requires the state to reduce global warming gases to 1990 levels by 2020, and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 2006 levels by New Jersey is the first state to set global warming targets so far into the future, environmentalists said, and the first to require that energy imports adhere to New Jersey's standards.
24Agriculture is the production of food, feed, fiber, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and breeding and feeding animals.Agri is from Latin ager, meaning "a field", and culture is from Latin cultura, meaning "cultivation"
25Development of agriculture is considered one of the foundations of civilization because the active culture of useful plants and animals promoted population growth and a transition from mobile to settled life.When farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in the tribe/nation/empire were freed to devote themselves to ambitions and enterprises other than food acquisition.
26Agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide social and economic change, including wealth-building and militaristic specializations
28The effect of climate on agriculture is related to variability in local climates rather than in global climate patterns. Consequently, agronomists consider any assessment has to be individually consider each local area.On the other hand, agricultural trade has grown in recent years, and now provides significant amounts of food, on a national level to major importing countries, as well as comfortable income to exporting ones. The international aspect of trade and security in terms of food implies the need to also consider the effects of climate change on a global scale.
29Climate change impacts on agriculture: Productivity, in terms of quantity and quality of crops.Agricultural practices, through changes of water use (irrigation) and agricultural inputs such as herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers.
30Environmental effects, in particular in relation of frequency and intensity of soil drainage (leading to nitrogen leaching), soil erosion, reduction of crop diversity.Rural space, through the loss and gain of cultivated lands, land speculation, land renunciation, and hydraulic amenities.
34Problems on the Ground Crop Yield Forecast Unpicked tomatoes rotting in the field because of unusually high rainfall in Camarillo, CALand Use PlanningA wild coyote looking for lunch on a golf course in Sun City, AZ
35The agricultural sector is a driving force in the gas emissions and land use effects thought to cause climate change.In addition to being a significant user of land and consumer of fossil fuel, agriculture contributes directly to greenhouse gas emissions through practices such as rice production and the raising of livestock.
37Transforming the Future: Impacting the World Adaptation involves taking action to minimize the effects of anthropogenic climate change and lessen civilization's vulnerabilities to its negative effects.Mitigation involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of anthropogenic climate change and its negative effects.
39Breeding new plant species and crops which are more tolerant to changed climate conditions
40Improving water use efficiency, planning for alternative water sources, such as treated wastewater, and making changes to water allocation and pricing to combat less available water.
41Agriculture can make an important contribution to climate change mitigation while providing benefits to both farmers and the general public.Agriculture can reduce the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause climate change by:• Storing carbon in soils and plants;• Producing fuels and electricity to replace fossil fuels; and• Reducing emissions from livestock operations and agricultural lands.
42Improved crop and grazing land management to increase soil carbon storage; restoration of cultivated peaty soils and degraded lands.
43Forestation; reforestation; forest management; reduced deforestation; harvested wood product management; use of forestry products for bio-energy to replace fossil fuel use.Tree species improvement to increase biomass productivity and carbon sequestration. Improved remote sensing technologies for analysis of vegetation/ soil carbon sequestration potential and mapping land use change.
44Employ research based information and education programs to meet the needs of local clientele. Extend research-based knowledge to the public and engage people in life-long learning.
45GRAND CHALLENGE A Global Change Commitment and Strategy for the National Association of County Agricultural AgentsVision: Reflects the optimistic view of theorganization or its clientele's future.“A clean and sustainable environment for theproduction of food, feed, fiber and fuel”“An educated public on the issues of climate change”
46GRAND CHALLENGE A Global Change Commitment and Strategy for the National Association of County Agricultural AgentsMission: Defines where the organization is going now, basically describing the purpose, why this organization exists.“To educate the public about anthropogenic climate change issues and promote measures to adapt and mitigate its consequences”“A globally conscious workforce of county agricultural agents”
47GRAND CHALLENGE A Global Change Commitment and Strategy for the National Association of County Agricultural AgentsValues: Main values protected by the organization during the progression, reflecting the organization's culture and priorities.“People, Partnerships, Environment, Education, Science”
48GRAND CHALLENGE A Global Change Commitment and Strategy for the National Association of County Agricultural AgentsGoals or Objectives: Specific time bound statements of intended future results and continuing statements of intended future results.“In 5 years all NACAA members will understandthe basic issues of climate change.”“In 10 years NACAA members will be a primary source ofclimate change adaptation and mitigation information.”
50The Road to Success Offer an excellent product and service. Believe in your product and service.Understand the needs of those who are seeking your product and service.Believe that your clientele needs your product and service.Embody the values and ideals of your product and service.Effectively market your product and serviceDo not give up in the face of adversity or rejection.From “How to sell swimsuits in the Arctic” by Adam Hamilton