Water Connection Between Human Health and the Environment WATER Oceans Streams Rivers FOOD Produce PorkFish Poultry Beef HUMAN HEALTH ElderlyChildren Immuno- compromised Agricultural Runoff Handling Preparation Consumption Irrigation Fertilization Animal & Human Feces Recreational & Drinking Water Lakes Ground Water Health Care
Water in the Urban vs the Rural Areas URBAN (point sources) Wastewater treatment systems with larger flows Combined Sewer Overflows Aging Infrastructure, spills Community Water Tourism focus at coastal areas RURAL (diffuse) Septic tanks; Smaller wastewater plants & lagoon systems Animal manure & Biosolids application Groundwater & Individual wells Less monitoring & less information on water quality Source of food supply
SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT ISSUES New Rules: Ground water Rule, Long-Term Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Watershed Protection. Sensitive Populations. Contaminant Candidate List.
CLEAN WATER ACT Fishable/ Swimmable Biological/chemical/Physical Integrity NPDES Discharge permitting system (wastewater and stormwater) CSOs, SSOs BEACH ACT Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) Water Quality Protection Plans
A few definitions… Pathogen = microbial agent causing disease Enteric pathogen = agent causing intestinal disease; EXCRETED IN THE FECES Zoonotic pathogen = a pathogen of animals that can infect humans SLIDE PROVIDED BY DR. JEANETTE THURSTON, ARS, NEBRASKA
Pathogens of Concern Viruses Bacteria Parasites THE DISEASES: diarrhea, respiratory illness, liver damage, kidney failure, heart disease, cancer, nervous system disorders; birth defects, death.
E.coli One measure of water quality is the numbers of the fecal indicator organism E.coli,a harmless bacterium found in the gut of humans and animals including birds. Presence indicates the possible presence of pathogens. Pathogens cause disease (from water due to ingestion or inhalation) Special types of E.coli are true pathogens like E.coli 0157H7
Sources of E.coli and Pathogens Agricultural run-off Animal farming operations Waste water/Sewage treatment Septic systems Combined Sewer Overflow Wildlife
RecreationalIrrigation Drinking Water Sources That Can Be Threatened By Fecal-borne Pathogens Seafood SLIDE PROVIDED BY DR. JEANETTE THURSTON, ARS, NEBRASKA
Manure-Borne Pathogens that May Threaten U.S. Water Supplies Protozoan Parasites Enteric Viruses? Other Pathogens Bacteria Antibiotic Resistance Microsporidia SLIDE PROVIDED BY DR. JEANETTE THURSTON, ARS, NEBRASKA
Life Cycle of Cryptosporidium Host ingests oocyst Animal reservoir C. parvum Obligate intracellular parasite C. hominus restrictive to human to human transfer
The Emergence of Cryptosporidium As a pathogen –1908 - 1st description of organism in mice –1976 - 1st report of infection & illness in humans As a waterborne pathogen –1984 - 1st waterborne outbreak, Braun Station, TX, 47 cases; warning re: Cryptosporidium at WQTC –1987 - Carrollton, GA waterborne outbreak, 13,000 cases –1993 - Milwaukee, WI waterborne outbreak, >400,000 cases; AIDS mortality = ~70% As a Foodborne Pathogen –1993 - 1st foodborne outbreak, in apple cider
Agricultural Environments SLIDE PROVIDED BY DR. JEANETTE THURSTON, ARS, NEBRASKA
Ground Water Environment Ground water occurs in the rocks beneath us. The types of rocks determine how protected the water is from human activities. Images from USGS Circular 1139 -- http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1139 /index.html Virus contamination of ground and surface water
E. Coli casts shadow over public beaches St. Clair, Sanilac monitor health threat
Groundwater Risks Lessons Learned Walkerton, Ontario Outbreak (occurred In small community Using Ground water). Source: Application of Animal Waste/Manure ? Monitoring and Disinfection not addressed. 2300 CASES 7 DEATHS 27 CASES of HUS 5 years later community still suffering.
FDA Home Page | CFSAN Home | Search/Subject Index | Q & A | HelpFDA Home PageCFSAN HomeSearch/Subject Index Q & AHelp September 16, 2006; Updated October 20, 2006 Nationwide E. Coli O157:H7 Outbreak: Questions & Answers FDA and the State of California announced October 12 that the test results for certain samples collected during the field investigation of the outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 in spinach are positive for E. coli O157:H7. Specifically, samples of cattle feces on one of the implicated ranches tested positive based on matching genetic fingerprints for the same strain of E. coli O157:H7 that sickened 204 people.
1. What do you think are the most significant challenges we are currently facing in regard to food safety/ and or water safety? 2. What are the new tools and techniques that could assist us in meeting these challenges? 3. What should we be doing right now in regard to monitoring and reporting?
WATER QUALITY & HEALTH What do you think are the most significant challenges in regard to food safety/ and or water safety? There are numerous emerging pathogens and issues and there is a lack of scientific information regarding sources, occurrence, transport, and survival/persistence. Thus lack of scientific knowledge is a severe impediment to informed choices and management strategies. We should be monitoring and reporting water quality in a risk framework
Enteric Pathogens: Contributing Factors for Environmental Persistence and Transmission High numbers shed in feces Increased survival Low infectious dose Increased resistance to disinfection/treatment Multiple routes of transmission Cause Animal and human infections SLIDE PROVIDED BY DR. JEANETTE THURSTON, ARS, NEBRASKA
What are the new tools and techniques that could assist us in meeting these challenges? VIRUSES & PATHOGEN TESTING INDICATORS & SOURCE TRACKING TRACER STUDIES
What is PCR? Enzymatic reaction that makes many copies of DNA from single molecule 2 n copies of DNA from single molecule where n = No. of cycles So, 35 cycles of PCR would yield 2 35 copies of DNA
RESULTS in WASTEWATER Sample IFA Oocysts/100 L PCR Result Species/Genotype 1 4 8 -- 2 107 209 + C. parvum genotype 2 3 5 61 -- 4 5 10 -- 5 83 162 + C. parvum genotype 2 6 151 319 + C. parvum genotypes 1 and 2 7 26 55 - - 8 3 6 -- 9 2 8 -- 10 40 120 + C. parvum genotypes 1 and 2 11 26 53 + C. parvum genotypes 1 and 2 12 26 104 + C. parvum genotype 2
Cryptosporidium in Michigan Waters Red Cedar in E. Lansing Levels 21.5 oocysts/100L 11.0 oocysts/100L 6.0 oocysts/100L Level in Farm Ditches/Drain Fields –3 to 5,990 oocysts/100L –132 infectious oocysts/100L Levels in the Grand River –1 to 50 oocysts/100L
Hillsdale and Lenawee Counties Crypto Sampling Locations Hillsdale County Lanawee County Bear Creek at Morse Black Creek at Crockett Stoney Creek at Seneca Rice Lake Drain Bear Creek at Medina VHI Stormwater Culvert at Tamarack St. Joe Creek at Beecher Wolf Creek at Forrister M-34 Adrian M-52 US 223 M-50 Morenci Hudson
Crypto in Michigan Waters Cryptosporidium was found in 11 surface water sites near CAFO farms which may have been the source of the oocysts. The site with the highest detected level of Cryptosporidium was at the white tile that drains into Rice Lake Drain near the Haley Road crossing with levels as high as 5990 oocysts per 10L. Giardia was detected at 8 of the surface water sites. Viable and infectious oocysts were also detected. High levels of E.coli bacteria were reported as well. C. Andersonii & C. parvum were most frequently identified genetically, but C. hominus was also found.
Microbial Source Tracking Tools are now available to determine the molecular fingerprint of the fecal pollution. Health risks Remediation Prioritization Responsibility
Microbial Source Tracking (MST) Indicator bacteria doesnt provide source of pollution Track sources of fecal contamination in water MST can be library dependent or library independent
Culture vs nonculture Culture dependent methods target viable organisms only Non- culture methods target both viable and non viable cells
Host specific Host specific method is library independent For Library-dependent, DNA libraries are built using isolates from animals & human sources in the area Using these libraries to match to the unknown environmental sample Host specific method requires no library, the marker is specific to the host
Most Promising tools are microbial host-specific markers Proteobacteria A.ESP in Enterococci For human sewage detection B. Adenoviruses, distinguishes Human from Cow C. Bacteroides Bacteria: human and cow systems being tested and a bird marker may be available soon
Tracer Study: impact of sewage release at the beach
Study Area Grand Rapids Lake Michiga n Grand Haven Grand River
Materials and Methods Injection of biological tracer(PRD-1) and chemical tracer (rhodamine wt dye) ~ 2 km upstream of USGS gauge in Grand Rapids, MI 8 sampling points from 3 bridges downstream
TRACER: Distance: 17 MILES Time: 16 hours Travel Speed: 1.06 miles per hour Up to 2 days to reach the beach Viruses reduced 99.99%
Holding Pond Surface Water Groundwater Aerosol Transport & Deposition Manure storage Land Application Well head impacts Direct Deposition Runoff SLIDE PROVIDED BY DR. JEANETTE THURSTON, ARS, NEBRASKA
Application 0.5 to0.8 gallons Per sq feet Virus Tracer per sq ft 170 million
Preliminary data: occurrence of Tracer in the monitoring of the tile drain
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES RISK ASSESSMENT PARADIGM HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Types of microorganisms and disease end-points DOSE-RESPONSE Human feeding studies, clinical studies, less virulent microbes and health adults EXPOSURE Monitoring data, indicators and modeling used to address exposure RISK CHARACTERIZATION Magnitude of the risk, uncertainty and variability
RISK CHARACTERIZATION CHARACTERIZATION WATER quality Reporting Human & animal diseases. ANALYSIS PROBLEM FORMULATION RISK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
RESEARCH NEEDS HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Types of pathogens in various sources. Define manure as a beneficial product with targeted levels of pathogen reduction associated with processing of animal waste, verified through monitoring. EXPOSURE Monitoring data, indicators and modeling used to address exposure, from farms to water ways, septic tank impacts and sewage spills and effluent discharges.