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Phosphorus Fate and Transport in an Impounded River System Implications for TMDL Stakeholders and Extension Educators Dean Baas MSU Geological Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "Phosphorus Fate and Transport in an Impounded River System Implications for TMDL Stakeholders and Extension Educators Dean Baas MSU Geological Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phosphorus Fate and Transport in an Impounded River System Implications for TMDL Stakeholders and Extension Educators Dean Baas MSU Geological Sciences Department MSU Extension Land & Water Program W. K. Kellogg Biological Station

2 Presentation Outline Lake Allegan/Kalamazoo River phosphorus TMDL Overview Research Lake Allegan phosphorus Sources Point Nonpoint Kalamazoo River watershed phosphorus sources, fate and transport Agriculture Urban Impoundments Implications for TMDL stakeholders and extension educators Preliminary Conclusions Questions and Discussion

3 Lake Allegan/Kalamazoo River phosphorus TMDL watershed 1600 mi 2 watershed in Southwest Michigan Agricultural watershed Nationally recognized stakeholder driven phosphorus TMDL Battle Creek Kalamazoo Portage Grand Rapids

4 Lake Allegan EPA 303d list as phosphorus impaired waterbody 2.5 mi 2 impoundment hydroelectric dam impoundment Periodic nuisance algal blooms Carp/Catfish

5 Lake Allegan Water Quality 1998Goal Total phosphorus84 ug/L60 ug/L Chlorophyll a (April-September average) 45 ug/L30 ug/L Dissolved oxygen (daily minimum) 4.2 mg/L5 mg/L Secchi (April-September average) 30 inches 42 inches Carp/Catfish (average % of fish assemblage) 80%30% Reductions allocated as follows: Point source dischargers – 23% All other sources of phosphorus (NPS) - 50%

6 Total Maximum Daily Load The primary purpose of the TMDL program is to protect public health and the health of impaired aquatic ecosystems by ensuring attainment of water quality standards, including beneficial uses. US EPA, 1998

7 TMDL Research Education and Extension Michigan State University Extension Land & Water Program at KBS received: In 2001, a $249, grant to develop a nonpoint source tracking system, and help develop, coordinate & track implementation activities.

8 TMDL Research Education and Extension Michigan State University Extension Land & Water Program at KBS received: In 2001, a $249, grant to develop a nonpoint source tracking system, and help develop, coordinate & track implementation activities. In 2003, a $485,000 USDA-CSREES Integrated Water Program grant to: Characterize the sources, fate and transport of phosphorus in the TMDL watershed. Integrate research, education, and extension to enhance phosphorus reduction strategies through the stakeholder driven TMDL organization.

9 Research

10 Research - Sampling Auto-samplers (1 parameter) Daily composite TP Weekly grab samples (17 parameters) TP, TDP, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na +, K +, Cl -, NO 3 -, SO 4 2-, alkalinity, temperature, pH, specific conductance, DO, %DO, chlorophyll A Four synoptic samplings (40 parameters) Weekly + Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, As, Se, Rb, Mo, Sn, Pb, Mn, Fe Sr, Ba, U, Al, B, Ni, Cd, Ag Discharge USGS gaging stations Isco autosampler stage

11 Phosphorus Sources – Lake Allegan 1998 MDEQ Load Estimate: 145,200 lbs/g.s Load Estimate: 98,400 lbs/g.s (32 % reduction) 2006 Load Estimate: 120,800 lbs/g.s. (17% reduction)

12 Phosphorus Sources

13 Phosphorus Sources Growing Season NPS TP Exports 17 – 37 lbs/mi 2 28 – 51 lbs/mi 2 43 – 69 lbs/mi 2 46 – 88 lbs/mi 2 In General NPS Export Coefficients Increase Excludes urban areas Mixed landuse watersheds

14 DP:TP = 40 % PP:TP = 60 % DP:TP = 70 % PP:TP = 30 % DP:TP = 25 % PP:TP = 75 % Phosphorus Sources NPS Agricultural Phosphorus Fractions

15 DP:TP = 40 % PP:TP = 60 % DP:TP = 70 % PP:TP = 30 % DP:TP = 25 % PP:TP = 75 % Phosphorus Sources Agricultural TMDL Implications Agricultural watersheds Conventional approach is to reduce P by promoting soil conservation BMPs High dissolved P watersheds Less effective Need to reduce P inputs High particulate P watersheds More effective

16 lbs/mi – 430 lbs/mi 2 Phosphorus Sources Growing Season Urban NPS TP Exports Urban areas Kalamazoo/Portage Battle Creek

17 Phosphorus Sources Urban NPS TP Exports Kalamazoo urban event

18 lbs/mi – 430 lbs/mi 2 Phosphorus Sources Urban TMDL Implications Urban watersheds Event sampling required to capture source Continue storm water management efforts

19 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments Three Impoundments Emmett Street Dam Morrow Lake Lake Allegan Influence sources, transport and fate of phosphorus

20 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments Emmett Street impoundment sinking phosphorus 2005: 1700 lbs 2006: 2600 lbs Reducing the export of phosphorus

21 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments Emmett Street impoundment Fed by the Battle Creek River High ratio of dissolved to total phosphorus Impoundment sinking DP Suggest DP precipitation Geochemical process

22 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments Morrow Lake Impoundment sourcing phosphorus 2005: 19,000 lbs 2006: 9,500 lbs Increasing the export of phosphorus

23 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments Morrow Lake 1.7 mi 2 impoundment Located approximately 2/3 down the watershed Mediates phosphorus transport

24 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments Outlet growing season mean TP concentration relatively constant Varying inlet concentrations

25 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments During the growing season, Morrow Lake inlet to outlet: Particulate phosphorus increases Dissolved phosphorus decreases Dissolved nitrate decreases flow

26 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments 2006 Chlorophyll A sampled Chlorophyll A increases with particulate phosphorus Algal activity Biological process flow

27 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments P reduced P replaced No net P reduction P reduction towards goal The Morrow Impoundment: Decouples the upstream portion of the watershed Replaces phosphorus reduced in that region Forces the downstream portion of the watershed to produce reductions to meet Lake Allegan TMDL goals

28 Phosphorus Sources, Transport and Fate Impoundments Lake Allegan impoundment sinking phosphorus 2005: 15,000 lbs 2006: 28,000 lbs Storing phosphorus which slows the recovery

29 Implications for TMDL Stakeholders and Extension Educators Phosphorus processes are important Biological Geochemical Can help, hurt, or mediate Outputs may change with input changes Sources of total phosphorus are not sufficient for reduction strategies Phosphorus fractions BMP selection Phosphorus source and fraction changes could have unexpected impact Impoundments Environment for processes Time for processes Impact timeframe for improvement

30 Preliminary Conclusions Detailed phosphorus and chemistry data is required to develop TMDL phosphorus reduction strategies Phosphorus analysis should include phosphorus forms BMP recommendations should be based on phosphorus forms Impoundments should be evaluated to determine their impact on the transport and fate of phosphorus Target reduction must consider the long term impact of phosphorus processes

31 Questions and Discussion


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