Race, Freedom & Equality Poli 110J The problem of the the 20 th century is the problem of the color-line.
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Race, Freedom & Equality Poli 110J 13 The shadow of fear ever hung
Why is education necessary? 3 possibilities and dangers at the turn of the 20 th Century: 1. The multiplying of human wants in culture- lands calls for world-wide cooperation of men in satisfying them. – Globalizing markets serve to bring people into contact and commerce with one another, presenting the possibility for equal exchange
Why is education necessary? Behind this thought lurks the afterthought of force and dominion,--the making of brown men to delve when the temptation of beads and red calico cloys. – Color line – Exploitation
Why is education necessary? 2. The thought of the older South,--the sincere and passionate belief that somewhere between men and cattle, God created a tertium quid, and called it a Negro,--a clownish, simple creature, at times even lovable within its limitations, but straitly foreordained to walk within the Veil. – A tolerance based in hierarchy
Why is education necessary? Within this, the afterthought,--some of them with favoring chance might become men, but in sheer self-defence we dare not let them, and we build walls about them so high, and hang between them and the light a veil so thick, that they shall not even think of breaking through. – Become men = access to the spheres of life reserved for whites – But privileges of whites are based in the exclusion of blacks
Why is education necessary? The thought of the things themselves, the confused, half-conscious mutter of men who are black and whitened, crying, Liberty, Freedom, OpportunityVouchsafe to us, O boastful World, the chance of living men! – Assimilationist – Demand/plea for equality – Asking to be treated as humans To have ones rights respected is to be acknowledged and be treated as fully human
Why is education necessary? To be sure, behind the thought lurks the afterthought,--suppose, after all, the World is right and we are less than men? Suppose this mad impulse within is all wrong, some mock mirage from the untrue? – Double consciousness – Awareness of the hostility of the wider society
Who is to be educated? Men The Talented Tenth The rule of inequality:--that of the million black youth, some were fitted to know and some to dig – Individualistic – Leadership – Serve to raise other blacks out of the defilement of the places where slavery had wallowed them.
What is the goal of education? we almost fear to question if the end of racing is not gold, if the aim of man is not rightly to be rich. Some negative social changes result from the sudden transformation of a fair far-off ideal of Freedom into the hard reality of bread-winning and the consequent deification of Bread. – Vs. Booker T. Washingtons industrial schooling – Vs. the view of advancement as referring only to money
What is the goal of education? The post-war South has forgotten the old ideal of the Southern gentleman,--that new- world heir of the grace and courtliness of the patrician, knight, and noble… in favor of sharp & unscrupulous businessmen. – An odd kind of valorization of the antebellum white Southern elite culture – Non-capitalist
What is the goal of education? Du Bois fears that wealth will become the goal of politics, the fuel of law, and even replace Truth, Beauty, and Goodness as the ideal of the Public School. – Why is this a problem? Who doesnt like money? Regards human beings as among the material resources of a land to be trained with an eye single to future dividends. – Slavery in fact after slavery in law
The goal of education The purpose of education for Du Bois is not to train men (by which he means men) for business, but to train them for life, which is to say confront the whole of the world. – What is the utility of Truth, Beauty, and Goodness for this project?
The goal of education Generates the breadth and broadening of human reason, by catholicity of taste and culture. – Character To overcome the problem of the color line will require broad-minded, upright men, both white and black, and in its final accomplishment American civilization will triumph. – Belief in American telos of equality
The goal of education I sit with Shakespeare and he winces not. … So, wed with Truth, I dwell above the Veil. Is this the life you grudge us, O knightly America? … Are you so afraid lest peering from this high Pisgah, between Philistine and Amalekite, we sight the Promised Land? – Transcending power of truth
The Role of the Church given the peculiar circumstances of the black mans environment [his religious institutions] were the one expression of his higher life. – Aesthetic – Spiritual – Philosophical – Economic & social
Three things characterize the religion of the slave from which the black church descends – The Preacher – The Music – The Frenzy
The Preacher A leader, a politician, an orator, a boss, an intriguer, an idealist. Descended from the Medicine Man/Priest – The chief could not survive enslavement, but the Priest could Christianized by exposure & convenience Center of the church organization
The Music The most original and beautiful expression of human life and longing yet born on American soil The articulate message of the slave to the world a faith in the ultimate justice of things Of death the Negro showed little fear, but talked of it familiarly and even fondly
The Music They tell us in these eager days that life was joyous to the black slave, careless and happy… But these songs are the music of an unhappy people, of the children of disappointment, they tell of death and suffering and unvoiced longing toward a truer world…
The Frenzy When the Spirit of the Lord passed by, and, seizing the devotee, made him mad with supernatural joy Old as religion, as Delphi and Endor Many generations firmly believed that without this visible manifestation of the God there could be no true communion with the invisible.
Du Bois on the church The church is historically the core institution of black society in America – It predates even the monogamic black household – It remains the center of black society and economy – It is also the ethical and political center of black communities
Problems Historically, especially in the South, the church has served not to undermine but to reinforce the oppression of blacks Nothing suited [the slaves] condition better than the doctrines of passive submission embodied in the newly learned Christianity Deep religious fatalism – Children we shall all be free/When the Lord shall appear!
Problems Transformation of the African into the slave – Courtesy became humility, moral strength degenerated into submission, and the exquisite native appreciation of the beautiful became an infinite capacity for dumb suffering. – Losing faith in this world, the slave looked to the next – Marxist criticism of class & religion as applied to race
The Enslaving Power of Ideas Example: The Coming of John – John is happy in Altamaha, plays with the Judges boy One never sees in the North such cordial and and intimate relations between white and black as are everyday occurrences with us [Southerners]. – Goes away to school, sees wider world, advances himself. – Now wants to be addressed not by his first name, but as Mister.
The Enslaving Power of Ideas On return to Altamaha, is denounced by others as stuck up. In church, when he argues that church & sectarian concerns should be replaced in black life with a focus on unity, on racial and social issues, he is held up to scorn and scathing denunciation for trampling on the true Religion.
The Enslaving Power of Ideas Thus for Du Bois the structure & beliefs of black society, especially in the South, are complicit in the oppression of black people As in Marcuse, even though the beliefs and desires are sincere, the are tools of the oppressing group – Consider the Judge: I like the colored people, and sympathize with all their reasonable aspirations, but you and I both know, John, that in this country the Negro must remain subordinate.
Transcending the Veil Through Truth – I sit with Shakespeare and he flinches not – How does work out for John? One cannot remain in the world of Truth, the world of Fact must at some point be reckoned with.
Transcending the Veil In Death – John – Burghardt Gomer Du Bois: 1897-1899 Died of diphtheria in Atlanta, could have been saved. He knew no color-line, poor dear, and the Veil, though it shadowed him, had not yet darkened half his sun. Not dead, not dead, but escaped; not bond, but free. Well sped, my boy, before the world had dubbed your ambition insolence, had held your ideals unattainable, and taught you to cringe and bow. Better far this nameless void that stops my life than a sea of sorrow for you.
Transcending the Veil Sleep, then, child,--sleep till I sleep and waken to a baby voice and the ceaseless patter of little feetabove the Veil. I shall die in my bonds. – Behind the Veil, life is a chain – Despite the death of his son, Du Bois asks only that he and his people be treated as human beings, having access to the same world as whites. He lives in the hope that blacks and whites will one day be able to live in equality.
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