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Disasters in India (Types & Consequences) & Nature of Civil Defence Organization.

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Presentation on theme: "Disasters in India (Types & Consequences) & Nature of Civil Defence Organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Disasters in India (Types & Consequences) & Nature of Civil Defence Organization

2 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi We pay homage to the Pioneer of Indian Ambulance Corps in South Africa as first voluntary service organized by an Indian in Modern Times. Mahatma Gandhi was awarded QSA Boer War Medal in 1900 A Tribute

3 Civil Defence in India Building People’s Disaster Resilience Civil Defence in India Building People’s Disaster Resilience

4 Civil Defence Civil Defence all over the world and in India has been a government program that provides guidance and assistance in preparing for, responding to and recovering from public emergencies that result from conflict or natural disasters.

5 CD Measures Civil Defence measures are designed to deal with immediate emergency conditions, protect the public and restore vital services and facilities that have been destroyed or damaged by disaster. Civil Defence measures are designed to deal with immediate emergency conditions, protect the public and restore vital services and facilities that have been destroyed or damaged by disaster.

6 Major Tasks of Civil Defence To make sure that the public is warned of danger and provided with instructions on how to avoid hazards. To make sure that the public is warned of danger and provided with instructions on how to avoid hazards. Advice people to protect themselves by either evacuating the area or remain and take shelter. Advice people to protect themselves by either evacuating the area or remain and take shelter. Organizing immediate relief to the survivors. Organizing immediate relief to the survivors. Support emergency services Support emergency services Rescue Operations Rescue Operations Firefighting Firefighting Law Enforcement Law Enforcement Medical Care Medical Care Public Works repair Public Works repair Provision of voluntary Food, Shelter and Clothing. Provision of voluntary Food, Shelter and Clothing. Assist in Recovery Operations Assist in Recovery Operations Clearance of debris Clearance of debris Restoring utility services Restoring utility services Managing relocations centers Managing relocations centers

7 What was the need ? The number of incidents happening during World War II were enormous & beyond the capacity of local Emergency services. The number of incidents happening during World War II were enormous & beyond the capacity of local Emergency services. There was a need for unifying the overall efforts of the country to survive a catastrophe & raise public morale. There was a need for unifying the overall efforts of the country to survive a catastrophe & raise public morale.

8 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. Chapter VI. Civil Defence Art 61. - Definitions and scope For the purpose of this Protocol: (1) "Civil defence" means the performance of some or all of the under-mentioned humanitarian tasks intended to protect the civilian population against the dangers, and to help it to recover from the immediate effects, of hostilities or disasters and also to provide the conditions necessary for its survival. These tasks are: (a) warning; (b) evacuation; (c) management of shelters; (d) management of blackout measures; (e) rescue; (f) medical services, including first aid, and religious assistance; (g) fire-fighting; (h) detection and marking of danger areas; (i) decontamination and similar protective measures; (j) provision of emergency accommodation and supplies; (k) emergency assistance in the restoration and maintenance of order in distressed areas; (l) emergency repair of indispensable public utilities; (m) emergency disposal of the dead; (n) assistance in the preservation of objects essential for survival; (o) complementary activities necessary to carry out any of the tasks mentioned above, including, but not limited to, planning and organization;

9 Art 62. General Protection Civilian civil defence organizations and their personnel shall be respected and protected, subject to the provisions of this Protocol, particularly the provisions of this section. They shall be entitled to perform their civil defence tasks except in case of imperative military necessity. Civilian civil defence organizations and their personnel shall be respected and protected, subject to the provisions of this Protocol, particularly the provisions of this section. They shall be entitled to perform their civil defence tasks except in case of imperative military necessity.

10 Article 15 : International Distinctive sign The international distinctive sign of civil defence provided for in Article 66, paragraph 4, of the Protocol is an equilateral blue triangle on an orange ground. A model is shown in Figure 4: The international distinctive sign of civil defence provided for in Article 66, paragraph 4, of the Protocol is an equilateral blue triangle on an orange ground. A model is shown in Figure 4: It is recommended that: a) if the blue triangle is on a flag or armlet or tabard, the ground to the triangle be the orange flag, armlet or tabard; It is recommended that: a) if the blue triangle is on a flag or armlet or tabard, the ground to the triangle be the orange flag, armlet or tabard; b) one of the angles of the triangle be pointed vertically upwards; b) one of the angles of the triangle be pointed vertically upwards; c) no angle of the triangle touch the edge of the orange ground. c) no angle of the triangle touch the edge of the orange ground.

11 Civil Defence in India The Civil Defence programme in India relies on the individual and the locality, doing that which is necessary to increase the chances of survival, to minimise damage and to recover quickly. The Civil Defence programme in India relies on the individual and the locality, doing that which is necessary to increase the chances of survival, to minimise damage and to recover quickly.

12 The Threat

13 India’s Security Concerns India faces varied and complex security challenges ranging from low intensity conflicts characterized by tribal, ethnic and left wing movements and ideologies India faces varied and complex security challenges ranging from low intensity conflicts characterized by tribal, ethnic and left wing movements and ideologies

14 Over 65% land area vulnerable to earthquakes; 70% of land under cultivation prone to drought; 40 million hectares to floods; 8,000 km coastline to cyclones. A Major Disaster occurs every 2-3 years; 5 crore people affected annually 10 lakh houses damaged annually along with human,social and other losses During 1985-2003, the annual average damage due to natural disasters has been estimated at 7 crore US $

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18 The TSUNAMI in the Indian Ocean

19 Terrorism The global environment has reduced the probability of conflict considerably but Terrorism is on the rise and becoming a cheap mode for nations to commit acts of aggression with less fear of retaliation.

20 Why Worry about Radiological Weapons ? Enough fissile material is missing to construct numerous nuclear devices Enough fissile material is missing to construct numerous nuclear devices Enough radioactive material is missing to contaminate large areas using Radiation Dispersion Devices (RDD) Enough radioactive material is missing to contaminate large areas using Radiation Dispersion Devices (RDD) Technology to build a nuclear device, radiation bomb, or RDD is readily available Technology to build a nuclear device, radiation bomb, or RDD is readily available Nuclear weapon facilities within the former Soviet Union have not been well guarded or financed, which increased the probability of theft Nuclear weapon facilities within the former Soviet Union have not been well guarded or financed, which increased the probability of theft

21 Why Worry about Chemical Weapons? Some countries covertly allow terrorists to use their stockpile Some countries covertly allow terrorists to use their stockpile The production technology is widely available The production technology is widely available Production facilities can be disguised as legitimate chemical business activities Production facilities can be disguised as legitimate chemical business activities Terrorists have already used chemical weapons Terrorists have already used chemical weapons At least 28 nations have chemical weapons programs At least 28 nations have chemical weapons programs POISON

22 Why Worry about Biological Weapons? Theft from production facilities is likely Theft from production facilities is likely Production technology is widely available Production technology is widely available Terrorists have already used biological weapons Terrorists have already used biological weapons Biological weapons production can be disguised as a legitimate pharmaceutical enterprise Biological weapons production can be disguised as a legitimate pharmaceutical enterprise At least 12 nations possess biological weapons At least 12 nations possess biological weapons

23 Why Worry about Big Conventional Bombs? Technology is more available Technology is more available Terrorist have used large bombs Terrorist have used large bombs Military grade explosives are more available Military grade explosives are more available Yield big news media coverage Yield big news media coverage

24 Hazardous Chemical Incident Methylisocyanate (MIC) incident at Bhopal, India Methylisocyanate (MIC) incident at Bhopal, India 3,300 people killed immediately; 16,000 after ten years 3,300 people killed immediately; 16,000 after ten years 40 tons of MIC released that covered 20 Km 2 40 tons of MIC released that covered 20 Km 2 Over 500,000 people suffered effects of gas Over 500,000 people suffered effects of gas Ground water hazard for ten years Ground water hazard for ten years

25 Climate Change Even if we go by the estimates of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, by 2100, 5764 sq. km of India’s coastal area will be submerged under the sea, triggering massive migration of the people towards hinterland Even if we go by the estimates of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, by 2100, 5764 sq. km of India’s coastal area will be submerged under the sea, triggering massive migration of the people towards hinterland 63 million people in India and 62 million in Bangladesh live within 10 meters of the sea levels that includes the population of cities of Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai. 63 million people in India and 62 million in Bangladesh live within 10 meters of the sea levels that includes the population of cities of Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai.

26 Beginning of the conflicts Displaced people will need food, water shelter and jobs Displaced people will need food, water shelter and jobs Government may be in a position to provide shelter but already in dire state government will be not be able to provide food, water and jobs also Government may be in a position to provide shelter but already in dire state government will be not be able to provide food, water and jobs also Desperation will lead to agitation Desperation will lead to agitation Unable to solve the root cause of agitation will result in conflicts Unable to solve the root cause of agitation will result in conflicts Radical Groups will exploit the situation & major conflicts will begin leading to breakdown of any semblance of administration and internal security Radical Groups will exploit the situation & major conflicts will begin leading to breakdown of any semblance of administration and internal security

27 Can Civil Defence do Anything? Relatively, small investments in Preparedness against emergencies enable communities to speed up Recovery by months or years and thereby prevent millions of deaths due to hunger, weather and epidemics that may occur consequent to many major disasters. Relatively, small investments in Preparedness against emergencies enable communities to speed up Recovery by months or years and thereby prevent millions of deaths due to hunger, weather and epidemics that may occur consequent to many major disasters. According to the human capital theory in economics, the country’s population is valued more than other factors like land, industry and wealth due to its capacity to rebuild a country after its destruction by nature’s forces. Therefore, to ensure economic stability and security of the country it is essential that a strong Civil Defence Corps is available for protection of its people. According to the human capital theory in economics, the country’s population is valued more than other factors like land, industry and wealth due to its capacity to rebuild a country after its destruction by nature’s forces. Therefore, to ensure economic stability and security of the country it is essential that a strong Civil Defence Corps is available for protection of its people.

28 Civil Defence builds Resilience Civil Defence has stressed on building confidence, reducing fear and uncertainty, ensure higher survival rate, assist in raising people’s quality of life that has made economic benefits feasible. The Civil Defence concept’s core objective has been to instill in people, the strength to understand that they are in control of their own destiny and well prepared for the uncertainties of the future. Civil Defence has stressed on building confidence, reducing fear and uncertainty, ensure higher survival rate, assist in raising people’s quality of life that has made economic benefits feasible. The Civil Defence concept’s core objective has been to instill in people, the strength to understand that they are in control of their own destiny and well prepared for the uncertainties of the future.

29 CIVIL DEFENCE “ Civil Defence” includes any measures, not amounting to actual combat, for affording protection to any person, property, place or thing in India or any part of the territory thereof against any hostile attack, whether from air, land, sea or any other places, or, for depriving any such attack of the whole or part of its effect, whether such measures are taken before, during, at or after the time of such attack or any measure taken for the purpose of disaster management, before, during, at, or after any disaster.

30 CIVIL DEFENCE ORGANISATION CENTRAL MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS ADVISORY COMMITTEE UNION HOME MINISTER CD COMMITTEE HOME SECRETARY JOINT PLANNING STAFF Director General NDRF & CDJOINT SECRETARY DY. SECRETARY CD BRANCH DY. DGCD H.G. & CD FIRE ADVISOR SECRETARY (BM)

31 CIVIL DEFENCE ORGANISATION STATE HOME DEPARTMENT CIVIL DEFENCE ADVISORY COMMITTEE DIRECTOR OF CIVIL DEFENCE LOCAL LEVEL CIVIL DEFENCE CONTROLLER CIVIL DEFENCE OFFICER CIVIL DEFENCE SERVICES ZONAL OFFICERS DIVISIONAL WARDENS POST WARDENS SECTOR WARDENS

32 Organization in a Town CD Controller CD Controller Dy. CD Controller Dy. CD Controller Zone (6 lakh) …………………. Divisional Warden (2 lakh)…………… Divisional Warden (2 lakh)…………… Dy. Divisional Warden Dy. Divisional Warden Post Warden (20,000)………….. Post Warden (20,000)………….. Sector Wardens (4000)………….

33 Civil Defence Corps Services Rendered HEADQUARTER SERVICE WARDEN SERVICE COMMUNICATION SERVICE CASUALTY SERVICE FIRE FIGHTING SERVICE TRAINING SERVICE RESCUE SERVICE SALVAGE SERVICE DEPOT & TRANSPORT SERVICE SUPPLY SERVICE WELFARE SERVICE CORPSE DISPOSAL SERVICE

34 Do we need it today ? Obviously YES, because – The Emergency Services are still not adequate. The Emergency Services are still not adequate. The Response time-lag for services to arrive at the scene of incident is growing longer. The Response time-lag for services to arrive at the scene of incident is growing longer. The higher degree of stress for the Emergency Services personnel needs large resource of back-up volunteers. The higher degree of stress for the Emergency Services personnel needs large resource of back-up volunteers.

35 Training Needs The tasks performed by Civil Defence volunteers with the assistance of local authorities are The tasks performed by Civil Defence volunteers with the assistance of local authorities are Immediate search & rescue Immediate search & rescue Medical support and transportation Medical support and transportation Security and Traffic arrangements Security and Traffic arrangements Fire Fighting support Fire Fighting support Immediate relief in the form of food, shelter, clothing Immediate relief in the form of food, shelter, clothing Disposal of dead and carcasses. Disposal of dead and carcasses.

36 Conclusion Research into Human reactions to Disaster has overwhelmingly recognized that Resilience to Disasters is much more commonly displayed by individuals having pre-knowledge and training to withstand the consequences. Research into Human reactions to Disaster has overwhelmingly recognized that Resilience to Disasters is much more commonly displayed by individuals having pre-knowledge and training to withstand the consequences.

37 We Can’t do Everything But We Can Do Some thing and We Intend to do Them Very Well

38 Thank you


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