Presentation on theme: "Birth rate Average birth rate in MEDCs:13 per 1000 Average birth rate in LEDCs:27 per 1000 Q1 give one economic reason for low birth rates in MEDCs Q2."— Presentation transcript:
Birth rate Average birth rate in MEDCs:13 per 1000 Average birth rate in LEDCs:27 per 1000 Q1 give one economic reason for low birth rates in MEDCs Q2 give one social reason for low birth rates in MEDCs Q 3 give reasons why birth rates are high in many LEDCs
The number of live births per 1000 people per year A1 people can afford to use birth control; children are expensive to raise; women want to follow their careers A2 having one or two children is considered a normal family size; women are well educated A3 reasons – lack of family planning clinics in rural areas; women are poorly educated and marry young; some governments and religions do not approve of birth control; children help with the family income by working
Death rate Average death rate in MEDCs:10 per 1000 Average death rate in LEDCs:9 per 1000 Q1 explain why death rates have declined almost everywhere in the world in the last 50 years Q2 Why are death rates in MEDCs similar to those in LEDCs despite better medical facilities in MEDCs? Q3 Name a country with an increasing death rate. Give a reason for this increase.
The number of deaths per 1000 people per year A1 due to improved medical knowledge and healthcare; vaccination programmes; improved access to clean water A2 in MEDCs there are more old people who are reaching the end of their natural life spans whereas there is a higher percentage A3 some African countries like Zimbabwe, Sierra Leone also Russia people in many southern African countries are badly affected by AIDS; in other countries it is due to war; in Russia due to poverty
Population structure Q1 Describe the shape of this population pyramid Q2 How does it show a young population structure? Q3 Name some problems caused by young population structures
The make up of a population by age and sex, usually shown by a population pyramid A1 wide base, steep sides and narrow top A2 widest at the base, very narrow at the top A3 high population increase; increased demands for food; pressure on services such as education and health; growth of big cities and urban problems; unemployment and poverty; environmental damage – air and water pollution
Migration Q1. state the differences between the pairs of migration terms given in (a), (b) and (c). (a) Forced Voluntary (b) National International (c) Permanent Temporary Q2. What is meant by the terms ‘refugee’ and ‘economic migrant’?
the movement of people from one place to another to live A1. A=people are driven out and forced migration whereas they choose to move in voluntary migration. B=‘national’ is migration within a country whereas ‘international’ is moving to another country. C= ‘permanent’ is staying forever in a new area or country whereas ‘temporary’ means going back home at a later date. A2. A refugee is a person forced to flee from the country where they live due to natural disasters (e.g. flood, drought, volcanic eruption) or human factors (e.g. war). An economic migrant is someone who moves for work, such as Mexicans moving to America
Rural-to-urban migration Q1 Describe some of the push factors of rural areas in LEDC’s. Q2 Describe some of the pull factors of urban areas in LEDCs
The movement of people from the countryside into cities, most often in LEDCs A1. shortage of land; not enough food; drought; soil erosion; lack of services – health, education A2. Jobs: greater number; more variety; better paid. More services: electricity; schools; hospitals Higher standard of loving with more modern facilities.
Urban-to-rural migration Q1. Name three problems for people living in large urban areas in MEDC’s. Q2. Give two examples of urban decay in British cities. Q3. State two of the attractions of living in a small rural village in the UK. Q4. Why do some local people object to city people moving to their villages?
The movement of people from cities into the countryside, most often in MEDCs A1. poor quality housing, traffic congestion, lack of open spaces, pollution from transport and visual pollution from old industries and docklands) A2. old, badly maintained terraced houses, derelict land such as old railway sidings, abandoned factories and warehouses A3. peace and quiet, clean air, good appearance, close to open country side. A4. house prices increase, shortage of houses for local people, no support for village services, traffic increases on country roads, pressure for new growth.
Hierarchy of settlements Q1. Name the rural settlements shown in the diagram? Q2. Describe what changes in settlement size, number of services and sphere of influence occur going up the hierarchy?
A1. hamlet and village, perhaps a small town with a strong rural link. A2. number of services: increase from none in a hamlet, to perhaps only a shop, pub and church in a village, to hundreds of shops and services in a large town; cities and capital cities have additional services such as large hospitals and airports. Sphere of influence from serving the local area only (rural settlement) to drawing people from a large area to shop (urban settlement); for a capital city it is the whole country.
Urban morphology. Q1. State the shape of the urban model? Q2. describe and explain changes in land use from the centre to the edge of the city?
The shape (form) and structure of towns and cities A1. Circular urban zones around a central CBD. A2. Land use changes from being dominated by business in the centre to residential housing in the suburbs; then it becomes less built-up in the rural- urban fringe. Cities grow from the centre outwards; businesses such as shops and offices became more concentrated in the centre; the centre is surrounded by places for people to live, with the newest housing usually near or beyond the city edge.
Urban zones: the central business district (CBD) Q1. Describe the main characteristics of the CBD ? Q2. Why is it often easy to spot the CBD on a photo of a city? Q3. Name two land uses that cover larger areas in other urban zones than they do in the CBD. Q4. Explain why these land uses are less important in the CBD.
The zone in the city centre dominated by shops and services A1. The largest concentration of offices and shops including department stores, with the widest variety of good for sale; the main place of work by day; rush- hour traffic congestion; high rents and rates; the point where main roads meet; the most densely built-u[ ara. A2. The concentration of skyscrapers and other tall buildings. A3. Housing, industries and open spaces. A4. High demand for land makes it too expensive for these land uses; rents and rates are too high for them/
Urban zones; inner city. Q1. State some of the land uses found in the inner-city zone? Q2. Explain why many inner-city zones are places of urban decay? Q3. Name an example of a redeveloped inner-city area. Q4. Describe some of the changes made during the redevelopment of inner-city areas.
The old urban zone next to and surrounding the CBD A1. Old houses (mainly terraced); factories and warehouses; derelict/waste land (e.g. railway sidings, old docks); tower blocks or flats. A2. many of the houses, factories, warehouses and railways were built more than 100 years ago when industry was more important; modern businesses and builders of new houses prefer locations nearer city edges. A3. Docklands in London; Albert Dock in Liverpool; or a local example. A4. Warehouses converted into luxury flats; docks changed into marinas; waste land reclaimed for houses and businesses; this is often called gentrification.
Brownfield sites. Q1. State three land uses shown in the photo? Q2. What shows that this is a Brownfield site? Q3. Why is it not a Greenfield site?
Areas of previously built up land that can now be reused for building A1. Blocks of flats; gas holders; old warehouses/factory buildings; equipment storage; weed-covered waste land. A2. It is likely that land in the foreground has been cleared of buildings and abandoned as derelict; old factory/warehouses partly bricked up suggests that it is no longer used and could be knocked down and land cleared for new buildings. A3. In wrong location (not rural); inner-city land like this must have been built on before; greenery is from weeds, not farmland in the country-side.
Urbanisation Q1. The graph shows total world urban population. Describe the changes it shows? Q2. Give two reasons for high rates of urbanisation of LEDCs?
An increase in the percentage of people living in urban areas A1. Total urban population doubles between 1970 and 2010; most of the increase is in LEDCs; the percentage living in LEDC cities increases from one half to two thirds of total urban population. A2. High rates of rural-urban migration due to push- pull factors, with more services and more varied work available in the big cities than in the countryside. High rates natural increases of population with many people of child-bearing age.