Presentation on theme: "1 Applied Ethics Section 4 Development Ethics. 2 Development The process of moving away from the evils of low life-expectancy, poor health, low literacy."— Presentation transcript:
2 Development The process of moving away from the evils of low life-expectancy, poor health, low literacy & low productivity, through self- help & enhanced social justice.
3 Alternatively… Development is the condition of a society which has largely attained more satisfactory levels, again through self-help & greater social justice.
4 Development Ethics Studies the ethical & value questions posed by development theory, planning & practice. Not all processes of development need to be approved by those who recognize them as development.
5 Harry Truman Trumans 1949 model of development has been criticised as anti-communist imperialism. But his concepts of underdevelopment & development are indispensable.
6 Peter Singer Singers 1972 argument for individual obligations to alleviate famine remains relevant. But the issues need to be reconceived in terms of averting & preventing persistent malnutrition & promoting development.
7 David Crocker Following Amartya Sen, Crocker interprets development as a process of change that protects, restores, strengthens & expands peoples valued & valuable capabilities (see note 1 [last slide, this Section]).
8 Onora ONeill ONeill has shown how Kantianism, whatever its defects, can underpin such an activist interpretation of development ethics.
9 Contractarianism Rawlsian contractarianism has been developed by Brian Barry & Charles R. Beitz to apply to fairer rules for international relations. Despite its shortcomings, contractarianism can thus play a part in development ethics.
10 The Concept of Sustainable Development The Brundtland Report (1987) Defined sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (see note 2 [last slide, this Section]).
11 Sustainable Development In the Brundtland Report, sustainable development is sustainable economically, socially & environmentally, & recognizes the intrinsic value of living creatures.
12 Other Interpretations The endorsement of sustainable development at the Rio Summit (1992) led to sustainable development being interpreted to suit big business interests, & consequently being accused of meaning business-as- usual. Yet it remains a defensible radical concept, to which almost all nations on Earth subscribe.
13 Millennium Development Goals Internationally agreed in 2000. Include the aim of halving extreme poverty by 2015. But the prospects of most of the goals being met are slim. They show, however, that large international programmes for achieving international development continue to be needed, as is individual support for them.
14 Notes 1. David Crocker, Hunger, Capability and Development, in W. Aiken and H. LaFollette (eds), World Hunger and Morality, 2nd edn., 1996, 211-230; reprinted in Des Gasper and Asuncion Lera St. Clair (eds), Development Ethics (Farnham, UK & Burlington, VT: 2010), pp. 383-402 [p. 410]. 2. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Our Common Future (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 43.