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© University of Cancun, Mexico1 Chapter 8: Green computing and Communication Architecture 1 Tarik Guelzim, 1 Mohammad S. Obaidat, Fellow of IEEE 1 Monmouth University HANDBOOK ON GREEN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
© University of Cancun, Mexico2 Energy Consumption big issues Enterprises, governments and institutions at large have a new important agenda: tackle the most challenging environmental issues Adopt environmentally sound practices. Computers and IT infrastructure consume significant amounts of electricity, placing a big burden on power grids
© University of Cancun, Mexico3 Exponential growth of content In order to cope up with the increasing demand for content, every year close to 150,000 new cellular towers are deployed across the world to serve around 400 million new subscribers worldwide. Meeting this demand is becoming a burden on energy consumption if we take into consideration the energy cost which is skyrocketing in the middle of ever changing geopolitics and economics around the world.
© University of Cancun, Mexico4 Evolving broadband internet it is no longer an option to focus only on the technological development of broadband internet to solve the capacity problem it is no longer an option to hold on to the current networking communication protocols that have reached a road block with regards to their initial design and features
© University of Cancun, Mexico5 Green computing: Hype vs. Standard To this day, there is more hype than real science behind the term green computing and communications which does not have a clear scientific definition other than its commercial and marketing connotation. We need a standard to adopt, which considers efficiency in communication networks equipment along with the use of alternative sources of energy
© University of Cancun, Mexico6 Green computing and governmental effort the study of green communications requires investigation in many areas such as radio frequency (RF) hardware, Media Access Control (MAC) protocols, general networking, material design and integration of renewable energy metrics are key elements to properly measure and provide indicators to allow making better judgments and strategically plan the growth of the different communication networks infrastructure.
© University of Cancun, Mexico7 Green computing and governmental effort: Energy Star 4.0 The program energy star has provided administrative guidance in reducing energy and power consumption in devices, appliances both civil and military. Energy Star is today one of the first technologies that were built in and used inherently in data centers. This because virtually every computer device today has this technology incorporated within and natively.
© University of Cancun, Mexico8 Green computing and governmental effort: Energy Star 4.0 The new energy star 4.0 standard regulates energy performance of external and internal power supplies. It also gives power consumption specifications for different hardware states: idle, sleep and standby modes. Computers meeting these requirements will save energy in all modes of operation.
© University of Cancun, Mexico9 Green computing and governmental effort: The TIP program The TIP managed green communication program allows a new solution that addresses the inherent limitations of the vertically separated design of OSI layers. TIP puts the emphasis on combining layer 1 and layer 2 (physical and MAC) to promote factoring research effort in one area
© University of Cancun, Mexico10 Green computing and governmental effort: The TIP program It also promotes using scientifically rigorous definitions and metrics to allow agencies quantify and qualify green communication infrastructure. More of a framework than a specific technology, TIP managed programs are being experimented with in fields such as transportation, medical systems and finance
© University of Cancun, Mexico11 Green computing and governmental effort: Electronics energy efficiency effort The electronics industry has put a lot of effort on improving components efficiency because they are the basic building blocks of any system. the Silicon Integration Initiative (S2I) and the Power Forward Initiative (PFI) are putting conventions for low power design by standardizing computer hardware interfaces. Initial forecasts have shown promising that it is possible to reduce carbon emission by 50% over a decade
© University of Cancun, Mexico12 Green computing and governmental effort: Epeat program The Epeat program, is a comprehensive environmental rating that helps greener computer and electronic equipment. Epeat evaluates electronic products on 23 required criteria and 28 optional ones
© University of Cancun, Mexico13 Green computing and governmental effort: Epeat program Epeat requirements are grouped into eight categories: Reducing and eliminating environmentally sensitive materials Selecting materials Designing for the products end of life (recycling) Product longevity Energy conservation End of life management Corporate performance Packaging
© University of Cancun, Mexico14 Green computing and governmental effort: Epeat program Epeat identifies its registered products as bronze, silver or gold. Bronze products meet all 23 required criteria silver meets all 23 criteria in addition to at least 14 optional criteria Gold class which meet all 23 required criteria in addition to at least 21 optional ones. Optional criteria are freely selective by manufacturers
© University of Cancun, Mexico15 E NERGY BASED MONITORING ARCHITECTURE FOR G REEN C OMPUTING : Study of power Consumption in traditional PC architecture The following graph depicts the energy consumption by different parts of traditional computer architecture under normal usage conditions
© University of Cancun, Mexico16 E NERGY BASED MONITORING ARCHITECTURE FOR G REEN C OMPUTING : Energy Monitoring More than ever, enterprise architects and deciders need tools such as indicators and dashboards to allow them successfully forecast the energy consumption of their future system (SCADA system, data center … etc). Based on these forecasts, existing systems can be optimized.
© University of Cancun, Mexico17 E NERGY BASED MONITORING ARCHITECTURE FOR G REEN C OMPUTING : Energy Monitoring Tools / TechniqueUsage Circuit meters Used in data centers especially in a rack group setup. Circuit meters allow measuring precisely the energy consumption of a group of server racks. Power strip meters Also used in data centers. Power strip meters allow a group of interconnected systems. Plug meter The plug meter allows monitoring one physical system. External thermal sensor meter The thermal sensor meter allows a more grained sensing capability at a floor level. Internal server thermal meter Used in inside a physical system.
© University of Cancun, Mexico18 E NERGY BASED MONITORING ARCHITECTURE FOR G REEN C OMPUTING : Extensible computing Architecture Any green computing architecture today must take into consideration the environmental impact it incurs. IT architect shall aggregate the communication models with the different metering interfaces from the ground up to allow a better synergy and effectiveness in terms extensibility in the long run. There is a lack of standards and the segmentation of the different vendors about the very basic elements of computer architecture design
© University of Cancun, Mexico19 E NERGY BASED MONITORING ARCHITECTURE FOR G REEN C OMPUTING : Extensible computing Architecture The following reusable architectural blocks have been identified to create extensible green computing architecture systems: IssueDescription Proprietary energy APIsMost vendors have developed their own APIs to interface and communicate with metering devices. Especially in large IT structures, we can find more than one interfacing API each corresponding to a different system. This fragmentation phenomenon is similar to having to use many cell phones and using different battery charger for each one of them. Inevitably, this incurs and multiplies additional maintenance cost for the different architectures.
© University of Cancun, Mexico20 E NERGY BASED MONITORING ARCHITECTURE FOR G REEN C OMPUTING : Extensible computing Architecture IssueDescription Environmental communication bus Because there is a heterogeneous metering environment, system architects attempts to design architectures that comprise a common communication bus which acts as a façade when communicating with the different subsystems. Consolidating the communication bus makes it possible to create better monitoring and reporting tools.
© University of Cancun, Mexico21 E NERGY BASED MONITORING ARCHITECTURE FOR G REEN C OMPUTING : Extensible computing Architecture IssueDescription Configuration managementConfiguration is an important aspect of any system. In large systems, configuration changes can be costly (eg: number of backups, number of allowed concurrent sessions, disk quota, redundancy …) configuration can add work load on the system. Configuration management should allow correlating energy consumption to configured system profiles and also allow adapting the system dynamically based on its GHG measurement.
© University of Cancun, Mexico22 E NERGY BASED MONITORING ARCHITECTURE FOR G REEN C OMPUTING : Best practices for sustainable green computing system design The following are few best practices when designing a green computing architecture: Understanding business objectives Understanding power consumption and impact Developing a monitoring strategy Build environment sustainability into configuration management
© University of Cancun, Mexico23 E NERGY BASED MONITORING ARCHITECTURE FOR G REEN C OMPUTING : Incorporating Alternative energy in the basic BTS architecture Several cellular operators are experimenting with the use of alternative energy such as wind and solar in order to operate cellular base stations Currently, there are still many base stations in African countries that run on diesel fuel. the Mobile Telecommunication Limited (MTC) and Motorola have initiated a trial to study the feasibility of using solar panels to fuel cellular base stations. Results have suggested that approximately 659 kg CO 2 could be saved by eliminating the diesel generator
© University of Cancun, Mexico24 Green Communication protocols and models : Cognitive radio Recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of cognitive radio have significant potentials toward green communication. Cognitive radio, as its name inspires, relies fundamentally on sensing the surrounding environment and readapting its behavior on the different elements collected The integration of contextual awareness in the wireless spectrum opens a wide range of power control possibilities
© University of Cancun, Mexico25 Green Communication protocols and models : Cognitive radio This technology does not however come without drawbacks, in reality, in todays setups; Using less power at the cell level must be compensated by more power consumption at the device level resulting in a zero sum gain It is clear that an interdisciplinary method in the telecom field between cell tower and cell phone handheld manufacturers must be put into place to push forward an inter-layer approach.
© University of Cancun, Mexico26 Green Communication protocols and models : First order radio model (FORM) The first order radio model has been developed in an attempt to solve energy inefficiency issues with sensor networks Under normal conditions, FORM diminishes energy dissipation between the transmitter and the receiver nodes. Energy dissipation per bit in nano-joules 50 nJ/bit50 nJ/bit Transmitting a message of k-bits a distance d radio expends The receiving end radio expands as such
© University of Cancun, Mexico27 Green Communication protocols and models : Direct communication protocol (DCP) This protocol is used for routing in combination with low energy dissipation model such as FORM. Using DCP. Each sensor sends data directly to the base station. Only the base station receives messages
© University of Cancun, Mexico28 Green Communication protocols and models : Minimum transmission energy protocol (MTE) Nodes use intermediate nodes for routing to send data to the base station. The intermediate nodes path is chosen as such that it minimizes the energy amplifier equation (using FORM model). This protocol has few drawbacks: if relied on minimizing the amplifier equation, all nodes close to the base station will be chosen as intermediate nodes since they do not require a large amount of signal amplification to send data to the base station.
© University of Cancun, Mexico29 Green Communication protocols and models : Clustering The clustering technique tries to marry the benefits of both DCP and MTP. Under clustering, nodes are organized into clusters with a delegate base station. These base stations then transmit consolidated data to the main base. This technique works best if the base station is not an energy constrained node
© University of Cancun, Mexico30 Green Communication protocols and models : Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) LEACH improves on the previously described Clustering algorithms by distributing cluster information and by adding local processing to reduce global communication. In addition, LEACH adds random rotation of the cluster heads to maximize and extend the system life time. This protocol is broken into different phases: setup and steady state phase.
© University of Cancun, Mexico31 Green Communication protocols and models : Wireless Network Distributed Computing (WNDC) The current traditional wireless model empowers a selfish node behavior that is solely based on: performance quality of service capacity in the surrounding areas that are covered by its cell. The requirements of each base station must rather be coordinated within the overall network
© University of Cancun, Mexico32 Green Communication protocols and models : Wireless Network Distributed Computing (WNDC) The ability to apply such concepts in the wireless domain remains a challenge given the disruptive characteristics of the wireless channel. Distributed Design tradeoffs involve the following: A cross system interaction between the application layer and the communication layer. Simplifying the interaction complexity in the underlying networking, radio and physical layers.
© University of Cancun, Mexico33 Green Communication protocols and models : System Power Consumption (SPC) System Power Consumption is yet another communication model that aims at lowering energy consumption. Recent research has proposed to limit the energy consumption by adapting modulation techniques, coding and radiated power. This research works on the same energy optimization track as the PA model described in a previous section.
© University of Cancun, Mexico34 Green Communication protocols and models : Network Topology and Operation One of the leading telecom companies, Huawai, is leading the way to provide energy efficient base transceiver station (BTS) by including PA improvement along with operational strategies At the core of their technology is the Doherty- enhance technology that is combined with a custom power amplification chip to elevate amplifier efficiency to 45% instead of the current 33%.
© University of Cancun, Mexico35 Green Communication protocols and models : Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) provides the sensing and dynamic reconfiguration capabilities that leverage the use of spectrum white holes; this allows supporting opportunistic transmission without requiring extra spectrum bandwidth. It offered solutions to many issues: Offering real time processing using low clock frequency operation. Reducing RF accessing needs since this is a power consuming factor. Processing multiple instructions with each clock cycle.
© University of Cancun, Mexico36 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Green processor design Green computer design aims at reducing the environmental impact of computing by adopting new technologies and using new techniques and materials while balancing performance with the economic viability of the green solution Some research suggests that 50% energy consumption gain can be achieved by only decreasing the chip frequency by 15%. Other initiatives concentrate on dividing the cache into segments and only enabling i.e. powering them when needed.
© University of Cancun, Mexico37 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Greening data centers The continued rise of the internet and web applications is driving the rapid growth of data centers. We can improve data centers efficiency by: Using new energy –efficient equipment, Improving air flow management to reduce cooling requirements, Investing in energy management software Adopting environmentally friendly designs for data centers
© University of Cancun, Mexico38 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Greening data centers Some of currently deployed measures in the industry are: Energy conservation: Companies like HP, IBM, SprayCool a,d Cooligy are developing technologies such as liquid cooling and nano fluid cooling into servers and racks. Others use green energy sources such as hydrogen fuel cells as alternative green power sources. Virtualization: this is a key strategy to reduce data center power consumption. With virtualization, one server can host multiple virtual servers that use the computing resources efficiently because computing resources (CPU clocks cycles) are often not used at their maximum capacity.
© University of Cancun, Mexico39 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Green super computing Data center supercomputers provide an unparallel computational horse power for solving scientific and engineering problems This horse power comes at the expense of power consumption not only to run the super computer but also to cool it down. supercomputing focus on performance and occasionally cost/performance where performance is defined as speed
© University of Cancun, Mexico40 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Green super computing Green destiny is the first major instantiation of the supercomputing in small spaces project. Green destiny has put into perspective two types of super computer architectures: A low-power supercomputer that balances performance and power at system integration time. A power-aware supercomputer that adapts power to performance needs when the system is running. Both of these approaches aim at reducing power consumption and improving energy efficiency.
© University of Cancun, Mexico41 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Web services based SaaS and the Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS) is a buzzword in the realm of cloud computing. The basic idea is that we can reduce the number of applications deployed in data center by consolidating similar applications by SaaS providers There are many major players in the market today such as salesforce.com and amazon.com who offer SaaS services at a low cost.
© University of Cancun, Mexico42 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Web services based SaaS and the Cloud The major keys benefits of Web Service based SaaS can be summarized as follows: Cost (money) effectiveness. Time effectiveness. Focus on business needs rather than the construction and maintenance of IT infrastructure. Gain immediate access to state of the art innovations rather than maintaining legacy infrastructure. Gaining instant benchmarking data based on community feedback of SaaS. Save energy by reducing storage, computational and processing power at the servers
© University of Cancun, Mexico43 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Green Operating systems (OS) There are many ways to optimize a client environment to save energy and reduce environmental impact. Recent operating systems have made a clear design cut between the different layers that make up an –general purpose- operating system
© University of Cancun, Mexico44 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Green Operating systems (OS) There are many ways to optimize a client environment to save energy and reduce environmental impact. Recent operating systems have made a clear design cut between the different layers that make up an –general purpose- operating system Application servicesOperating systems servicesAll physical hardware services
© University of Cancun, Mexico45 D ESIGNING G REEN C OMPUTING M ODELS : Green Operating systems (OS) Each layer has its own services and provides services to the above layer. Each layer has to work in coordination with other layers. This layering model, allows dividing the green requirement into three scopes, each one is handled by the contributor of the subpart in the final OS.
© University of Cancun, Mexico46 Conclusions In this chapter we have summarized major research and technical orientations in the field of green communications and networks. These orientations focus on: Energy efficient protocols Energy efficient signal processing methods Energy efficient Adaptive algorithms Energy dissipation in computation Energy efficient network architectures Alternative energy sources
© University of Cancun, Mexico47 Conclusions Given the multidisciplinary nature of green communications that ranges from material engineering to system architecture, breakthroughs in this field are arriving at a fast pace. Nevertheless, implementing sustainable practices and strategies in businesses, products and services is also as important as their engineering counterparts in order to achieve this milestone.
© University of Cancun, Mexico48 Conclusions Ignoring power consumption as a design constraint of IT systems will result in supercomputing systems with very high operational cost and small reliability. This is to say that future petaflops machine will require 75 to 100 MW to power up and later cool down which can be estimated in several millions of US dollars in a span of a year.
© University of Cancun, Mexico49 Conclusions Green IT is a hot topic today and will continue to be an important issue for several years to come. To foster green IT, we need to understand the key environmental impacts arising from IT as well as the major issues that need to be addressed. IT infrastructure, products and services, operations and applications must turn into green sustainable forms.
© University of Cancun, Mexico50 Conclusions The challenges of green IT are immense. Nevertheless, recent development indicate that the IT industry is aware and has the will to tackle these issues given the enterprise business orientations are not impacted by such measures, at least not at the same instance in time.
© University of Cancun, Mexico51 Thanks for your attention!
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