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**Algorithms compared Bicubic Interpolation Mitra's Directional Filter**

Fuzzy Logic Filter Vector Quantization VISTA

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Bicubic spline Altamira VISTA

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Bicubic spline Altamira VISTA

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**User preference test results**

“The observer data indicates that six of the observers ranked Freeman’s algorithm as the most preferred of the five tested algorithms. However the other two observers rank Freeman’s algorithm as the least preferred of all the algorithms…. Freeman’s algorithm produces prints which are by far the sharpest out of the five algorithms. However, this sharpness comes at a price of artifacts (spurious detail that is not present in the original scene). Apparently the two observers who did not prefer Freeman’s algorithm had strong objections to the artifacts. The other observers apparently placed high priority on the high level of sharpness in the images created by Freeman’s algorithm.”

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Training images

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Training image

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Processed image

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**Inference in Markov Random Fields**

Gibbs sampling, simulated annealing Iterated conditional modes (ICM) Belief propagation Application examples: super-resolution motion analysis shading/reflectance separation Graph cuts Variational methods

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Motion application image patches image scene patches scene

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**What behavior should we see in a motion algorithm?**

Aperture problem Resolution through propagation of information Figure/ground discrimination

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The aperture problem

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The aperture problem

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**Motion analysis: related work**

Markov network Luettgen, Karl, Willsky and collaborators. Neural network or learning-based Nowlan & T. J. Senjowski; Sereno. Optical flow analysis Weiss & Adelson; Darrell & Pentland; Ju, Black & Jepson; Simoncelli; Grzywacz & Yuille; Hildreth; Horn & Schunk; etc.

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**Motion estimation results**

Inference: Motion estimation results (maxima of scene probability distributions displayed) Image data Initial guesses only show motion at edges. Iterations 0 and 1

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**Motion estimation results**

(maxima of scene probability distributions displayed) Iterations 2 and 3 Figure/ground still unresolved here.

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**Motion estimation results**

(maxima of scene probability distributions displayed) Iterations 4 and 5 Final result compares well with vector quantized true (uniform) velocities.

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**Inference in Markov Random Fields**

Gibbs sampling, simulated annealing Iterated conditional modes (ICM) Belief propagation Application examples: super-resolution motion analysis shading/reflectance separation Graph cuts Variational methods

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**Forming an Image Illuminate the surface to get: Surface (Height Map)**

Shading Image Surface (Height Map) The shading image is the interaction of the shape of the surface and the illumination

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**Painting the Surface Scene Image**

Add a reflectance pattern to the surface. Points inside the squares should reflect less light

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**Problem What if we want to do shape from shading?**

Image Height Map Need some mechanism of informing the shape from shading algorithm about the reflectance pattern.

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Represent Scene As = Image Shading Image Reflectance Image These types of images are known as intrinsic images (Barrow and Tenenbaum)

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**Not Just for Shape from Shading**

Ability to reason about shading and reflectance independently is necessary for most image understanding tasks Material recognition Image segmentation Intrinsic images are a convenient representation of the scene Less complex than fully reconstructing the scene

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Goal Image Shading Image Reflectance Image

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