Presentation on theme: "Environmental Microbiology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Environmental Microbiology Introduction toEnvironmental MicrobiologyCourse: Companion Site for Environmental MicrobiologyInstructor: Maier
2 Chapter 1 - Lecture Objectives: Understand course objectives and how to obtain the grade you wantRecall some of the names of your classmates and your instructorLocate course materials on the webDefine Environmental Microbiology and articulate its relevance to the human race
3 Environmental Microbiology – definition The study of microbial fate and activity in air, water and soil, and the resulting impact on human health and welfare.Introduction to Environmental MicrobiologyCompare with:Microbial Ecology – definitionThe science that explores interrelationships between organisms andtheir living and abiotic environmentDriving force behind Environmental Microbiology:How can we harness the understanding of environmental microbesto benefit society?
4 Important Events Leading to Environmental Microbiology A Historical PerspectiveA) Ancient History1676 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek- 1st microscope “animalcules”Louis Pasteur- rejected theory of spontaneous generation- demonstrated presence of microbes in airSergei Winogradski- “Father” of Soil Microbiology- nitrification, autotrophyRobert Koch – Nobel Prize- pure culture technique- Koch’s postulates: a specific organism causes a specificprocess (e.g., disease)
5 B) 20th Century C) The Next Millenium 1928 Griffith - bacterial genetics- transformation1952 Selman Waksman - Principles of Soil Microbiology- Discovery of streptomycin (Nobel Prize)1953 Watson and Crick - Structure of DNA (Nobel Prize)1985 Kary Mullis - Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nobel Prize)"Beginning with a single molecule of the genetic material DNA, the PCR can generate 100 billion similar molecules in an afternoon. The reaction is easy to execute. It requires no more than a test tube, a few simple reagents and a source of heat. The DNA sample that one wishes to copy can be pure, or it can be a minute part of an extremely complex mixture of biological materials. The DNA may come from a hospital tissue specimen, from a single human hair, from a drop of dried blood at the scene of a crime, from the tissues of a mummified brain or from a 40,000-year-old wooly mammoth frozen in a glacier."C) The Next Millenium“Bioinformatics”