Presentation on theme: "Foundations Of Individual Behavior Chapter 2. Aim of this chapter To explain the relationship between ability and job performance Contrast three components."— Presentation transcript:
Aim of this chapter To explain the relationship between ability and job performance Contrast three components of attitude Discuss similarities and diffreneces between job satisfaction and job attributes Discuss the causes and consequences of job satisfaction Understand how to shape behavior of others
Foundations of Behavior Ability Attitude Learning
Ability Individuals capacity to perform various tasks In a job. Managers are interested in knowing how the people differ in abilities Managers use this knowledge to increase the likelihood that an employee perform his job well.
Intellectual Ability Encompasses mental activity – thinking, reasoning and problem solving(most imp predicators) Intelligent people are more creative and good performers. Smart people learn jobs quickly and are more adaptable to changing circumstances. They invent solutions to improve performance. Correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction is zero.
Ability and Job Fit Employee performance is enhanced when an employee and position are well matched.This is ability to fit into the job. Employee Performance – interaction between job requirements and employee’s abilities. Case 1: lack required ability Case 2: match the ability Case 3: ability exceeds job requirement
When Fit is Poor ? Lacking required abilities result in failure of employees. When employee has more ability than job requirement – Employee frustrated by limitations of job. Pay depends on employee’s skills.So if highly skilled the organization will be paying more for less work
ATTITUDES Attitudes are evaluative statement – either favourable or unfavourable – related to objects,people and events. They reflect how one feels about something Understand attitudes : Questions to be considered ….. What are the main components of attitude ? How consistent are attitudes ? Does behavior follow from attitudes ? What are the major job attitudes ?
What are the main components of attitude ? Three components of attitude Cognition – cognitive component Affect – affective component Behavior – behavioral component Eg : “I hate john because he discriminates minorities “
Example : An employee did not get the promotion instead a co-worker got it. Cognition – employee thought that he deserved the promotion Affect – the employee dislikes the supervisor Behavior – looking for another job
How consistent are attitudes ? Individuals reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes to their behavior – so that they appear rational and consistent. When there is a inconsistency the individual changes the behavior or attitude.
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance 1950’s Leon Festinger proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance- linkage between attitude and behavior Cognitive dissonance refers to any inconsistency that an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitude Festinger argued that any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and the individuals attempt to reduce the dissonance Impossible to avoid dissonance.
(not included) Attributes of Dissonance Importance of elements. Degree of influence – influence indiv has over elements rewards
Does Behavior always follow from Attitudes ? In 1960 research – low degree of relationship between attitudes and behavior. Recent research – attitudes predict future behavior. Relationship can be enhanced by taking moderating variable into account.
How do people cope with resonance? Reduce dissonance with three attributes : Importance of elements creating dissonance – If element less important then ignored The degree of influence the individuals believes he or she has over the elements will affect how they react to dissonance. The rewards involved in dissonance – Rewards influence to what extent the employee is motivated to reduce dissonance
Moderating Variables : Importance of attitude – Important attribute reflect fundamental values,self interest and identification with individuals and groups that a person values.Important attitude show strong relationship to behavior. Its specificity – More specific attitude,more specific behavior the stronger link between the two. Accessibility – Attitudes that are remembered are the ones likely to predict behavior. The existence of social power – Discrepancies between attitude and behavior are more likely to occur when there is a social pressure to behave in a certain way
Cont… A person’s direct experience with attitude: The attitude behavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if attitude refers to something with which the individual has direct experience. Self perception Theory – Looking at whether behavior influences attitude.
Job Attitudes Job Satisfaction Job Involvement Organizational Commitment Job Satisfaction : It is defined as a positive feeling about one’s job resulting from evaluation of its characteristics. A person with high level of job satisfaction holds positive feeling about the job Dissatisfied person - negative attitude towards job
Job Involvement The degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider perceived performance level important to self worth. Employee with high job involvement – strongly identify and care for the work they do.
Pyschological empowerment The degree to which they affect their work environment, their competence,meaningfulness of their jobs and autonomy of work. Good managers Empower their employees By involving them in decision Making them feel their work is important Giving them discretion to do their own thing
Organizational commitment The state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization is referred to as organizational commitment. High job involvement – identifying with one’s specific job. High organizational commitment – identifying with one’s employee organization.
Dimensions of Organizational Commitment Affective commitment – An emotional attachment to the organization and belief in values. Continuance commitment – Perceived economic value of staying with an organization compared to leaving it. Normative commitment – An obligation to stay with an organization for moral and ethical reasons.
In a nutshell Organizational commitment related to job productivity. Negative relationship between organizational commitment and absenteeism. Affective commitment is more strongly related to organizational outcomes. Affective commitment was a significant predicator of various outcomes. Continuance commitment is not a strong commitment.
Perceived organizational support People perceive organization as supportive when the following is true………. ◦ Rewards are deemed fair ◦ Employees have voice in decision ◦ The supervisors are supportive
Employee engagement Individuals involvement with satisfaction with and enthusiasm for the work they do. Factors that assess employee engagement : ◦ The availability of resources and opportunities to learn new skills ◦ Whether they feel their work is important and meaningful ◦ Whether their interactions with their coworkers and supervisors were rewarding
Engagement relates to job satisfaction,organizational commitment,job involvement, or intrinsic motivation