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©2011 Elsevier, Inc. Molecular Tools and Infectious Disease Epidemiology Betsy Foxman Chapter 8 Determining the Reliability and Validity and Interpretation of a Measure in the Study Population
©2011 Elsevier, Inc. Random and systematic errors (bias). Source: Adapted, with permission, from Atkins (2000). FIGURE 8.1 random error
©2011 Elsevier, Inc. Distributions of diseased (D) and nondiseased individuals, shown as the probability density function, for a diagnostic test. If a test value of 1 is used to classify diseased from nondiseased, the sensitivity (the shaded area under the diseased distribution A ) is 72%, and specificity (the shaded area under the nondiseased distribution B ) is 84%. Source: Reproduced, with permission, from Zou et al. (2007) and Mauri et al. (2005). FIGURE 8.2
©2011 Elsevier, Inc. Receiver operating curves plots sensitivity (true positive rate) versus 1-specificity (false negative rate). A perfect test (gold standard) is curve A ; the area under the curve (AUC) is 100%. Curve B is like a typical test; the AUC is 85%. C is the chance line (AUC of 50%); a test on line C is no better than chance alone. The most accurate tests approach curve A and have an AUC close to 100%. Source: Reproduced, with permission, from Zou et al. (2007). FIGURE 8.3
©2011 Elsevier, Inc. Receiver operating curve comparing the accuracy of using white blood cell counts (WBC), percent lymphocytes, and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) for predicting pertussis among 141 infants tested for pertussis using a PCR test. The area under the curve for ALC was 81% (95% CI: 72%, 90%). Source: Adapted, with permission, from Guinto-Ocampo et al. (2008). FIGURE
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