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April 9, 2012 Journal: Define totalitarianism and describe how WWI lead to such radical changes in Russia. Today’s question: What were the characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "April 9, 2012 Journal: Define totalitarianism and describe how WWI lead to such radical changes in Russia. Today’s question: What were the characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 April 9, 2012 Journal: Define totalitarianism and describe how WWI lead to such radical changes in Russia. Today’s question: What were the characteristics of a Fascist state? How and why did Italy become the first Fascist state?

2 Unit 7: The Rise of Radical Governments after WWI
Big Idea: Radical change often occurs during times of economic, social and political turmoil. Essential Question: Why did radical new governments come to power in Europe after WWI, and what were the effects on the citizens of these countries?

3 Quick question…. What countries would you consider to be “losers” of WWI? Would any country on the Allied side fit this description?

4 Countries with new, radical governments (1917-1939)
Russia (Communism) Germany (Fascism) Italy (Fascism)

5 Russia moves towards Communism…..

6 Economic theory that begins to gain acceptance during Industrial Revolution
Focus on the good of society as a whole. Believed capitalism only served few & created gap between rich and poor Means of production shared by all people $, factories, resources, land Equal distribution of wealth, profit was not primary objective Set the stage for Communism of the 20th Century. Socialism

7 Karl Marx 1818: Born in Trier, Prussia (Now Germany)
Attended Berlin University, introduced to writings of G.W.F. Hegel and group of his followers Theory of evolving process of history : Bounces around Europe Becomes editor of Liberal Newspapers & Journals- Get him in trouble with authorities Introduced to socialists, begins attending meetings Sees working-class struggles and poverty Meets Friedrich Engels, son of a wealthy factory owner Karl Marx

8 The Communist Manifesto
1848: Marx & Engels publish The Communist Manifesto Communism: A form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as unavoidable Goal: Take away the power to buy the labor of others by having collective ownership over means of production The Communist Manifesto

9 Marx’s Theory on Human History
All history is the history of class struggles Economic conditions are what drives change & moves history forward (Materialist) Each period of history is divided by constantly clashing economic/social classes Ruling class (Haves) vs. Ruled class (Have-nots) Ruling: Own means of production & make $ from labor of others Ruled: Exploited by ruling class for economic gain Marx’s Theory on Human History

10 Marx’s 5 Periods of Human History
Communism would end of the cycle of human history. 1.Pre-history; People shared things 2.Ancient society; distinct class appear, Slave vs. Owner 3.Feudal Society; Lords vs. Serfs 4.Bourgeois (Capitalist) Society; Bourgeoisie (capitalists) vs. Proletariat (workers) 5. Communist Society (Marx’s final stage); No social/economic classes End of history, full development of human existence Marx’s 5 Periods of Human History

11 How does Marx see Communism taking over ?
Violent revolution inevitable -- Workers have nothing to lose Must occur first in fully-industrialized country “Dictatorship of Proletariat” = Period where people are educated to work cooperatively Eventually government disappears. How does Marx see Communism taking over ?

12 So, why did it happen in Russia?

13 Lenin & New Russian Flag

14 Russian Civil War

15 Lenin’s Russia 1922: Communist’s produce Constitution
Mix democracy with socialism Means of production go to workers & peasants United most of old Russian Empire U.S.S.R aka Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Used army & secret police as enforcement Lenin’s Russia

16 Map of U.S.S.R

17 Lenin’s Death: 1924

18 Trotsky vs. Stalin 1924: Lenin dies of stroke* Trotsky vs. Stalin
Joseph Stalin “Man of Steel”: Ex-Convict & Bolshevik Secretary Leon Trotsky: Leader of Bolshevik Army (Red) in Civil War Supported worldwide revolution 1929: Fled Russia 1940: Murdered in Mexico Trotsky vs. Stalin

19 Totalitarianism Totalitarian Governments; 1. Single-party dictatorship
2. State control of economy 3.Use of constant fear/terror (Police spies, concentration camps….) 4. Strict censorship and government control of media 5. Use of schools & media to indoctrinate citizens 6. Unquestioning obedience to a single leader Nationalism: A strong sense of pride in one’s country/nation*. People who share a common history, culture

20 Governments in WWII Allies Axis Powers Germany (Fascist-Totalitarian)
United States (Democracy) France (Democracy) Great Britain (Democracy) Soviet Union (Communist-Totalitarian) Germany (Fascist-Totalitarian) Italy (Fascist-Totalitarian) Japan (Ultra-nationalist Democracy)

21 Today’s activity In order to get a better idea of what Fascism actually was, we will start by looking at Italy, where the term originated. Take about 15 minutes to read section 30-3 and complete the handout. Work by yourself or with a partner

22 April 10, 2012 Go back to your journal and answer yesterday’s questions: What were the characteristics of a Fascist state? How and why did Italy become the first Fascist state? Or, if you prefer: Knock Knock Who’s there? Mussolini How and why did he get there? Hahahaha

23 Today’s lesson Today’s question: How did Hitler rise to power in Germany? Why were people originally willing to support him? Today we will: Analyze the problems faced by the Weimar Republic (Germany) Explain the conditions in Germany that allowed for the rise of Hitler.

24 Adolf Hitler 1919: Joined small extremist Nazi party& quickly becomes leader Organized fighting squads: “Storm Troopers” Attempted “Beer Hall Putsch” – sent to jail & wrote Mein Kampf Extreme nationalism, anti-Semitism & anti-Communist Germany must expand under a great leader (Fuhrer)

25 Treaty of Versailles War guilt clause hurt nationalism
$$$Heavy reparations economic disaster Couldn’t pay France occupy coal-rich Ruhr Valley Workers strike Government prints $$ INFLATION!!!

26 Weak Government Weimar Republic- Parliament lead by Chancellor
- Many small parties in Parliament including Communist and Nazi Blamed for signing Versailles Treaty German Jews as scapegoats for hard times Political leaders feared Communism- Hitler was alternative

27 Great Depression 1929: Global Economic Collapse Revived memories
Unemployment Nazi membership growth Remembered Hitler’s promise: end reparations, create jobs, re-arm Germany People willing to give up personal freedoms for stability 1924: 3% : 33%- controlled parliament

28 Groups & Journal A: Megan, Peter, Jin, Lauren, Sara
B: Nicole C, Kyon, Grace, Amanda, Chris C: Tyler, Sarah K, Mike, Nicole S, Sean D: Kurt, Patrycja, Heather, Noah, Neha E: Josh, Evan, Nicole L, Ashley, Dmitriy Use what you learned yesterday to answer the essential question; How did Hitler rise to power in Germany? Why were people originally willing to support him?

29 April 11, 2012 Today’s essential question; How did Hitler maintain power & support in Germany while leading the country into WWII?

30 Today’s Activity Today, you will be working together to analyze the policies of the German government (Third Reich) that helped Hitler to maintain power after 1933. First, work in your reading groups to determine the key ideas from your text & how this policy helped Hitler maintain his power. Next, we will mix members from each group. Each of you will be responsible for teaching the members of your new group about your information. In the end, everyone should have a similar-looking organizer to help them answer today’s essential question.

31 Triumph of the Will

32 April 13, 2012 Use what you’ve learned over the last two lessons to answer the essential question. How did Hitler maintain power & support in Germany while leading the country into WWII? List the Nazi policies we’ve discussed and provide an explanation for how each contributed to Hitler’s power in Germany.

33 Activity Once you’ve finished your quiz, take one of the two assignments. 1. Read primary source quotes and answer questions. 2. Read the article and create a timeline detailing the actions taken by Italy and Germany in the 1930’s and the international reactions to what they were doing.

34 April 23, 2012: Use your homework to explain the meaning of this political cartoon drawn by Dr. Seuss (Yes, I am aware that this is not a question).

35 Appeasement Giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace. Pacifism: Opposition to all war.

36 Axis Powers Look to Expand
Japanese ultra-nationalists seek empire 1931: Invade Manchuria (China), withdraw from League of Nations 1937: Japanese conquer areas of Eastern China 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia- Addis Ababa King Haile Selassie appeals to L.O.N, ineffective : Germany violates Treaty of Versailles Re-arm, Conquest Rhineland, Sudetenland (area of Czechoslovakia), Czechoslovakia Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis

37 German Expansion

38 Group Activity Read your article, and note the main points on your graphic organizer Once everyone in your group has finished, teach one another about your topic and complete the rest of the organizer.

39 April 24, 2012 Yesterday’s essential question: How did Hitler implement his radical ideas of race/anti-Semitism into German society leading into WW2? Today’s essential question: Summarize the international scene leading into Hitler’s invasion of Poland

40 Important Events Leading to WW2
Anschluss: Union of Germany and Austria in 1938 Czechoslovakia 1 of 2 Democracies in Eastern Europe France & GB unwilling to risk war Sept. 1938; Munich Conference- “Peace for our time” declared by British Prime Minister Chamberlain August 1939; Nazi-Soviet Pact Stalin promised parts of Poland

41 Spanish Civil War Important although Spanish did not fight in WW2
Popular Front vs. National Front Popular- Communists, socialists, republicans National- Nationalists etc. Popular: Protected by Socialist/Communist countries USSR/Stalin National: Lead by general Francisco Franco Helped by Germany & Italy

42 April 26, 2012 Today’s essential question: Summarize WWII before U.S. entry. (Once again, not a question)

43 Hitler Invades Poland Sept. 1, 1939
Germany from West, Soviet Union from East Blitzkrieg: “Lightning War” Nazi bombing plan


45 New Technology Air Power More effective bombs, submarines etc.
Radar- Detect airplanes Sonar- Detect Subs Medical advances to treat wounds

46 Early Axis Victories (1940-41)
April, 1940: Hitler launches Blitzkrieg, takesNorway & Denmark June 22, 1940: France surrenders (EARLY) Germany & Italy surround Paris Force French to sign surrender in same railroad car as Germany signed WWI Armistice (Revenge, anyone?) France split; Germany occupies North, puppet govt. in South (Vichy-capital) 1941: Greece & Yugoslavia taken Bulgaria & Hungary join Axis Alliance.


48 Hitler slips up… Operation Barbarossa- Hitler’s plan to conquer Soviet Union Stalin unprepared- Great Purge wiped out officers Russian soldiers destroyed own factories & burned crops while retreating “General Winter”- German forces unprepared for Russian winter, many freeze to death British Prime Minister Winston Churchill agrees to help defend Russia


50 April 27, 2012 Do now: Yesterday’s essential statement: Summarize WWII before U.S. entry in 25 words or less. Today’s essential question: What were U.S.-Japan relations like before Pearl Harbor? What were the goals of the two countries?

51 The U.S. 1939-41 President Franklin Roosevelt (FDR)
Originally declared neutrality- Public Support Early 1941: Congress passes Lend-Lease Act Lend materials to Allies August 1941: Atlantic Charter FDR & Churchill (British Prime Minister) Set final goals for Post-War World “Permanent system of general security”

52 Four Policemen Idea

53 Japan 1931-41 Overall goal: To create Asian Empire
1930’s: Begins campaign to conquer China Emperor Hirohito Economically dependent- Few natural resources Wanted European areas of Asia China & French Indochina (Now Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) 1940: U.S. stops supplying materials Negotiations fail

54 Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Japanese destroy U.S. ships, grounded planes & kill 2,400 President FDR-“A date which will live in infamy” U.S. declares war on Japan, Germany & Italy declare war on U.S. Early months: Japanese gain Euro/American possessions in Asia “Co-Prosperity Sphere”


56 Total War Allied economies directed toward war effort
Factories ordered to make war materials Goods rationed Ended depression era Women played big role Took men’s jobs in factories & offices Served in armed forces: Driving ambulances/trucks, decoding messages, fighting in resistance efforts

57 The Big Three Stalin, FDR, Winston Churchill
Strategy: Finish war in Europe before paying attention to Asia

58 1942-44: Major turning points toward Allied Victory
Nov.1942: El Alamein, Egypt North AfricaItaly 1943: Mussolini overthrown New government signs armistice, loyalists still fight Aug Jan. 1943: Stalingrad, Soviet Union Germans lose 300,000 Soviets go on offensive June 6, 1944: D-Day Allied forces invade Normandy, France France freed from German occupation

59 Major Allied Victories 1942-1944

60 The End in Europe Jan. 1945: Battle of the Bulge Mussolini executed
Last Axis “Victory” Mussolini executed Hitler commits suicide May 8, 1945: V-E Day

61 War in the Pacific Lead by U.S. General Douglas MacArthur
Island Hopping: Allied strategy of capturing Japanese islands on route to Japan Midway, Iwo Jima Kamikaze: Japanese pilots who undertook suicide missions


63 Japanese Internment In U.S. & Canada, citizens of Japanese descent seen as security risks Similar situation with Germans in England lost civil rights, jobs, and property Many forced into internment camps Reparations paid in 1980’s

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