Presentation on theme: "April 9, 2012 Journal: Define totalitarianism and describe how WWI lead to such radical changes in Russia. Today’s question: What were the characteristics."— Presentation transcript:
1 April 9, 2012Journal: Define totalitarianism and describe how WWI lead to such radical changes in Russia.Today’s question: What were the characteristics of a Fascist state? How and why did Italy become the first Fascist state?
2 Unit 7: The Rise of Radical Governments after WWI Big Idea: Radical change often occurs during times of economic, social and political turmoil.Essential Question: Why did radical new governments come to power in Europe after WWI, and what were the effects on the citizens of these countries?
3 Quick question….What countries would you consider to be “losers” of WWI? Would any country on the Allied side fit this description?
4 Countries with new, radical governments (1917-1939) Russia (Communism)Germany (Fascism)Italy (Fascism)
6 Economic theory that begins to gain acceptance during Industrial Revolution Focus on the good of society as a whole. Believed capitalism only served few & created gap between rich and poorMeans of production shared by all people$, factories, resources, landEqual distribution of wealth, profit was not primary objectiveSet the stage for Communism of the 20th Century.Socialism
7 Karl Marx 1818: Born in Trier, Prussia (Now Germany) Attended Berlin University, introduced to writings of G.W.F. Hegel and group of his followersTheory of evolving process of history: Bounces around EuropeBecomes editor of Liberal Newspapers & Journals- Get him in trouble with authoritiesIntroduced to socialists, begins attending meetingsSees working-class struggles and povertyMeets Friedrich Engels, son of a wealthy factory ownerKarl Marx
8 The Communist Manifesto 1848: Marx & Engels publish The Communist ManifestoCommunism: A form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as unavoidableGoal: Take away the power to buy the labor of others by having collective ownership over means of productionThe Communist Manifesto
9 Marx’s Theory on Human History All history is the history of class strugglesEconomic conditions are what drives change & moves history forward (Materialist)Each period of history is divided by constantly clashing economic/social classesRuling class (Haves) vs. Ruled class (Have-nots)Ruling: Own means of production & make $ from labor of othersRuled: Exploited by ruling class for economic gainMarx’s Theory on Human History
10 Marx’s 5 Periods of Human History Communism would end of the cycle of human history.1.Pre-history; People shared things2.Ancient society; distinct class appear, Slave vs. Owner3.Feudal Society; Lords vs. Serfs4.Bourgeois (Capitalist) Society;Bourgeoisie (capitalists) vs. Proletariat (workers)5. Communist Society (Marx’s final stage);No social/economic classesEnd of history, full development of human existenceMarx’s 5 Periods of Human History
11 How does Marx see Communism taking over ? Violent revolution inevitable -- Workers have nothing to loseMust occur first in fully-industrialized country“Dictatorship of Proletariat” = Period where people are educated to work cooperativelyEventually government disappears.How does Marx see Communism taking over ?
15 Lenin’s Russia 1922: Communist’s produce Constitution Mix democracy with socialismMeans of production go to workers & peasantsUnited most of old Russian EmpireU.S.S.R aka Soviet UnionUnion of Soviet Socialist RepublicsUsed army & secret police as enforcementLenin’s Russia
18 Trotsky vs. Stalin 1924: Lenin dies of stroke* Trotsky vs. Stalin Joseph Stalin “Man of Steel”: Ex-Convict & Bolshevik SecretaryLeon Trotsky: Leader of Bolshevik Army (Red) in Civil WarSupported worldwide revolution1929: Fled Russia 1940: Murdered in MexicoTrotsky vs. Stalin
19 Totalitarianism Totalitarian Governments; 1. Single-party dictatorship 2. State control of economy3.Use of constant fear/terror (Police spies, concentration camps….)4. Strict censorship and government control of media5. Use of schools & media to indoctrinate citizens6. Unquestioning obedience to a single leaderNationalism: A strong sense of pride in one’s country/nation*.People who share a common history, culture
20 Governments in WWII Allies Axis Powers Germany (Fascist-Totalitarian) United States (Democracy)France (Democracy)Great Britain (Democracy)Soviet Union (Communist-Totalitarian)Germany (Fascist-Totalitarian)Italy (Fascist-Totalitarian)Japan (Ultra-nationalist Democracy)
21 Today’s activityIn order to get a better idea of what Fascism actually was, we will start by looking at Italy, where the term originated.Take about 15 minutes to read section 30-3 and complete the handout.Work by yourself or with a partner
22 April 10, 2012Go back to your journal and answer yesterday’s questions: What were the characteristics of a Fascist state? How and why did Italy become the first Fascist state?Or, if you prefer:Knock KnockWho’s there?MussoliniHow and why did he get there? Hahahaha
23 Today’s lessonToday’s question: How did Hitler rise to power in Germany? Why were people originally willing to support him?Today we will:Analyze the problems faced by the Weimar Republic (Germany)Explain the conditions in Germany that allowed for the rise of Hitler.
24 Adolf Hitler1919: Joined small extremist Nazi party& quickly becomes leaderOrganized fighting squads: “Storm Troopers”Attempted “Beer Hall Putsch” – sent to jail & wrote Mein KampfExtreme nationalism, anti-Semitism & anti-CommunistGermany must expand under a great leader (Fuhrer)
25 Treaty of Versailles War guilt clause hurt nationalism $$$Heavy reparations economic disasterCouldn’t pay France occupy coal-rich Ruhr ValleyWorkers strikeGovernment prints $$ INFLATION!!!
26 Weak Government Weimar Republic- Parliament lead by Chancellor - Many small parties in Parliament including Communist and NaziBlamed for signing Versailles TreatyGerman Jews as scapegoats for hard timesPolitical leaders feared Communism- Hitler was alternative
27 Great Depression 1929: Global Economic Collapse Revived memories Unemployment Nazi membership growthRemembered Hitler’s promise: end reparations, create jobs, re-arm GermanyPeople willing to give up personal freedoms for stability1924: 3% : 33%- controlled parliament
28 Groups & Journal A: Megan, Peter, Jin, Lauren, Sara B: Nicole C, Kyon, Grace, Amanda, ChrisC: Tyler, Sarah K, Mike, Nicole S, SeanD: Kurt, Patrycja, Heather, Noah, NehaE: Josh, Evan, Nicole L, Ashley, DmitriyUse what you learned yesterday to answer the essential question; How did Hitler rise to power in Germany? Why were people originally willing to support him?
29 April 11, 2012Today’s essential question; How did Hitler maintain power & support in Germany while leading the country into WWII?
30 Today’s ActivityToday, you will be working together to analyze the policies of the German government (Third Reich) that helped Hitler to maintain power after 1933.First, work in your reading groups to determine the key ideas from your text & how this policy helped Hitler maintain his power.Next, we will mix members from each group. Each of you will be responsible for teaching the members of your new group about your information.In the end, everyone should have a similar-looking organizer to help them answer today’s essential question.
32 April 13, 2012Use what you’ve learned over the last two lessons to answer the essential question.How did Hitler maintain power & support in Germany while leading the country into WWII?List the Nazi policies we’ve discussed and provide an explanation for how each contributed to Hitler’s power in Germany.
33 ActivityOnce you’ve finished your quiz, take one of the two assignments.1. Read primary source quotes and answer questions.2. Read the article and create a timeline detailing the actions taken by Italy and Germany in the 1930’s and the international reactions to what they were doing.
34 April 23, 2012: Use your homework to explain the meaning of this political cartoon drawn by Dr. Seuss (Yes, I am aware that this is not a question).
35 AppeasementGiving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace.Pacifism: Opposition to all war.
36 Axis Powers Look to Expand Japanese ultra-nationalists seek empire1931: Invade Manchuria (China), withdraw from League of Nations1937: Japanese conquer areas of Eastern China1935: Italy invades Ethiopia- Addis AbabaKing Haile Selassie appeals to L.O.N, ineffective: Germany violates Treaty of VersaillesRe-arm, Conquest Rhineland, Sudetenland (area of Czechoslovakia), CzechoslovakiaRome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
38 Group ActivityRead your article, and note the main points on your graphic organizerOnce everyone in your group has finished, teach one another about your topic and complete the rest of the organizer.
39 April 24, 2012Yesterday’s essential question: How did Hitler implement his radical ideas of race/anti-Semitism into German society leading into WW2?Today’s essential question: Summarize the international scene leading into Hitler’s invasion of Poland
40 Important Events Leading to WW2 Anschluss: Union of Germany and Austria in 1938Czechoslovakia 1 of 2 Democracies in Eastern EuropeFrance & GB unwilling to risk warSept. 1938; Munich Conference- “Peace for our time” declared by British Prime Minister ChamberlainAugust 1939; Nazi-Soviet PactStalin promised parts of Poland
41 Spanish Civil War Important although Spanish did not fight in WW2 Popular Front vs. National FrontPopular- Communists, socialists, republicansNational- Nationalists etc.Popular: Protected by Socialist/Communist countriesUSSR/StalinNational: Lead by general Francisco FrancoHelped by Germany & Italy
42 April 26, 2012Today’s essential question: Summarize WWII before U.S. entry. (Once again, not a question)
43 Hitler Invades Poland Sept. 1, 1939 Germany from West, Soviet Union from EastBlitzkrieg: “Lightning War”Nazi bombing plan
45 New Technology Air Power More effective bombs, submarines etc. Radar- Detect airplanesSonar- Detect SubsMedical advances to treat wounds
46 Early Axis Victories (1940-41) April, 1940: Hitler launches Blitzkrieg, takesNorway & DenmarkJune 22, 1940: France surrenders (EARLY)Germany & Italy surround ParisForce French to sign surrender in same railroad car as Germany signed WWI Armistice (Revenge, anyone?)France split; Germany occupies North, puppet govt. in South (Vichy-capital)1941: Greece & Yugoslavia takenBulgaria & Hungary join Axis Alliance.
48 Hitler slips up…Operation Barbarossa- Hitler’s plan to conquer Soviet UnionStalin unprepared- Great Purge wiped out officersRussian soldiers destroyed own factories & burned crops while retreating“General Winter”- German forces unprepared for Russian winter, many freeze to deathBritish Prime Minister Winston Churchill agrees to help defend Russia
50 April 27, 2012Do now: Yesterday’s essential statement: Summarize WWII before U.S. entry in 25 words or less.Today’s essential question: What were U.S.-Japan relations like before Pearl Harbor? What were the goals of the two countries?
51 The U.S. 1939-41 President Franklin Roosevelt (FDR) Originally declared neutrality- Public SupportEarly 1941: Congress passes Lend-Lease ActLend materials to AlliesAugust 1941: Atlantic CharterFDR & Churchill (British Prime Minister)Set final goals for Post-War World“Permanent system of general security”
53 Japan 1931-41 Overall goal: To create Asian Empire 1930’s: Begins campaign to conquer ChinaEmperor HirohitoEconomically dependent- Few natural resourcesWanted European areas of AsiaChina & French Indochina (Now Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia)1940: U.S. stops supplying materialsNegotiations fail
54 Pearl HarborDecember 7, 1941Japanese destroy U.S. ships, grounded planes & kill 2,400President FDR-“A date which will live in infamy”U.S. declares war on Japan, Germany & Italy declare war on U.S.Early months: Japanese gain Euro/American possessions in Asia“Co-Prosperity Sphere”
56 Total War Allied economies directed toward war effort Factories ordered to make war materialsGoods rationedEnded depression eraWomen played big roleTook men’s jobs in factories & officesServed in armed forces: Driving ambulances/trucks, decoding messages, fighting in resistance efforts
57 The Big Three Stalin, FDR, Winston Churchill Strategy: Finish war in Europe before paying attention to Asia
58 1942-44: Major turning points toward Allied Victory Nov.1942: El Alamein, Egypt North AfricaItaly1943: Mussolini overthrownNew government signs armistice, loyalists still fightAug Jan. 1943: Stalingrad, Soviet UnionGermans lose 300,000Soviets go on offensiveJune 6, 1944: D-DayAllied forces invade Normandy, FranceFrance freed from German occupation
60 The End in Europe Jan. 1945: Battle of the Bulge Mussolini executed Last Axis “Victory”Mussolini executedHitler commits suicideMay 8, 1945: V-E Day
61 War in the Pacific Lead by U.S. General Douglas MacArthur Island Hopping: Allied strategy of capturing Japanese islands on route to JapanMidway, Iwo JimaKamikaze: Japanese pilots who undertook suicide missions
63 Japanese InternmentIn U.S. & Canada, citizens of Japanese descent seen as security risksSimilar situation with Germans in Englandlost civil rights, jobs, and propertyMany forced into internment campsReparations paid in 1980’s