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Chapter 15 Serotonin Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 15-1: Chemical structure of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) and related indolealkylamines. The indole ring structure consists of the benzene ring and the attached five-member ring containing nitrogen. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 15-2: Schematic drawing depicting the location of the serotonergic cell body groups in a sagittal section of the rat central nervous system and their major projections. OT, olfactory tuberculum; Sept, septum; C. Put, nucleus caudate-putamen; G. Pal, globus pallidus; T, thalamus; H, habenula. (With permission from Consolazione A., et al. CNS Serotonin Pathways. In The Biology of Serotonergic Transmission. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982, 29–61) Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
TABLE 15-1: Classification of Serotonergic Cell Body Groups According to Dahlstrom and Fuxe and Corresponding Anatomical Structure Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 15-3: Serotonergic cell bodies in the midbrain raphe nuclei demonstrated by 5-HT immunocytochemistry. (A) Low magnification of transverse section through rat midbrain. The serotonergic cell body groups shown give rise to widespread serotonergic projections to cerebral cortex and forebrain structures. (B) Higher-magnification micrograph showing serotonergic cell bodies in dorsal and median raphe nuclei. The dorsal raphe nucleus lies in the central gray matter just beneath the cerebral aqueduct. In the transverse plane, the dorsal raphe can be further subdivided into a ventromedial cell cluster between and just above the MLF*, a smaller dorsomedial group just below the aqueduct, and large bilateral cell groups. The median raphe nucleus lies in the central core of the midbrain, below the MLF. (Abbreviations: D = dorsal raphe, M = median raphe, A = aqueduct; * = MLF (medial longitudinal fasciculus) (With permission from Molliver, 1987) Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 15-4: Simplified diagram of the main features of the dual serotonergic system innervating the forebrain. The fine varicose axon system (D fibers) arises from the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus with fibers that branch profusely in their target areas. It is difficult to demonstrate the synaptic connections of these fibers, and therefore the incidence of synapses on these fibers is still being debated. The basket axon system (M fibers) arises from the median raphe (MnR) nucleus with thick, non-varicose axons, giving rise to branches with characteristic axons that appear beaded, with round or oval varicosities. These large terminals make well-defined synapses with target cells. PAG, periaqueductal gray matter; IC, inferior colliculus; ml, medial lemniscus. (With permission from Tork, 1990) Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 15-5: The biosynthesis and catabolism of serotoninFIGURE 15-5: The biosynthesis and catabolism of serotonin. Not only does 5-HT have important physiological effects of its own, but also it is the precursor of the hormone melatonin. Note that in the pineal gland, which lies “outside” the blood–brain barrier, serotonin is converted enzymatically to the hormone melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine). The synthesis and secretion of melatonin is markedly influenced by the light–dark cycle. A circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion persists in animals housed in continuous darkness. Thus, melatonin synthesis is turned on by an endogenous “clock,” located within the SCN of the hypothalamus, with the daily rhythm normally being entrained to the day–night, light–dark cycle (Reiter et al., 2010). Melatonin, which provides circadian and seasonal timing cues through activation of G protein– coupled receptors (Dubocovich et al., 2003), has been implicated not only in the regulation of biological rhythms, but also in sleep and affective disorders. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 15-6: The substituted amphetamine fenfluramine inhibits the transport of 5-HT by both (A) the vesicular transporter and (B) the serotonin transporter (SERT). Substituted amphetamines such as fenfluramine and MDMA stimulate the release of 5-HT from serotonergic terminals. These drugs block the vesicular transporter and disrupt the proton gradient across the vesicle membrane. The increase in intracellular 5-HT favors the release of 5-HT by the reverse action of the SERT. These drugs also act as substrates for the SERT so as to inhibit the transport of 5-HT into cells. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 15-7: The synaptic effects of 5-HT are terminated by transporter proteins. (A) The uptake of 5-HT is mediated primarily by serotonin transporter (SERT) localized to serotonergic neurons. 5-HT reuptake by the SERT is a high-affinity/low-capacity process. The activity of 5-HT in the extracellular space is also terminated by its reuptake by various transporters into other neurons and into glia. 5-HT reuptake by these transporters, i.e., organic cation transporter, plasma membrane monoamine transporter, the norepinephrine transporter and dopamine transporter, is a low-affinity/high-capacity process. (B) When SERT function is attenuated, for example as a result of pharmacological blockade or due to a polymorphism in the SERT gene, these low-affinity/high-capacity transporters for 5-HT play an important role in regulating extracellular 5-HT concentrations (Daws, 2009). Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 15-8: Serotonin neurons and receptors are targets for a wide variety of therapeutic drugs. Drugs that act as agonists to activate receptors are indicated by solid-line arrows, whereas antagonists or inhibitors are shown with broken-line arrows. The 5-HT1A receptor acts as both the somatodendritic autoreceptor and a postsynaptic receptor; anxiolytic drugs such as buspirone are agonists at this receptor. Postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors are also potential targets of novel antipsychotic drugs. In terminal fields, the autoreceptor is either the 5-HT1B or 5-HT1D subtype; these receptors also function as postsynaptic receptors. The anti-migraine drug sumatriptan is an agonist at these receptors as well as the 5-HT1F receptor. Selective 5-HT1F receptor agonists are of great interest as potential anti-migraine drugs. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD are agonists at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors whereas atypical antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine and olanzapine are antagonists. The 5-HT3 receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel, is blocked by drugs effective in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis, such as ondansetron. Another important target for psychotherapeutic drugs is the serotonin transporter, which is blocked by drugs effective in the treatment of depression or obsessive–compulsive disorder (clomipramine). The enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin, MAO, is inhibited by another class of antidepressants. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
TABLE 15-2: Serotonin Receptors Present in the Central Nervous SystemCopyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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