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© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada1 Chapter 25: Smart Grid Communications: Opportunities and Challenges Hussein T. Mouftah and Melike Erol-Kantarci University of Ottawa HANDBOOK ON GREEN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada2 Outline Introduction to Smart Grid Communication Technologies for Smart Grid Wireless CommunicationTechnologies Wired CommunicationTechnoliges Communication Enabled Smart Grid Applications Challenges in Smart Grid Communications Summary and Conclusions
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada3 Introduction Problems of the traditional electricity grid: Demand is growing Fossil fuel reserves are diminishing Costs are increasing Aging infrastructure Reliability Renewable energy resources are not widely used Demand management is weak
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada4 Introduction Smart grid integrates Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the power systems for: Increased reliability More Security Better efficiency Reduced environmental impacts
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada5 Smart Grid Generation Coordination of renewable generation Storage Coordination of electric vehicle charging and discharging Transmission and Distribution Monitoring the utility assets Demand Load and energy production management for the residential consumers
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada6 The Big Picture
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada7 Communication Technologies for the Smart Grid Wireless Communication Technologies: IEEE Z-wave IEEE IEEE LTE/LTE-A IEEE
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada8 Communication Technologies for the Smart Grid Wired Communication Technologies Power Line Communications IEEE P1901/Broadband over Power LinesIEEE P1901/Broadband over Power Lines ITU-T G.hnITU-T G.hn ANSI/CEA-709ANSI/CEA-709 Wireline Communication Technologies Fiber Optical CommunicationsFiber Optical Communications EthernetEthernet
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada9 IEEE Zigbee Zigbee is a short-range, low-data rate, energy- efficient wireless protocol Zigbee utilizes 16 channels in the 2.4GHz ISM band worldwide 13 channels in the 915MHz band in North America one channel in the 868MHz band in Europe It supports data rates of 250 kbps, 100kbps, 40 kbps, and 20 kbps ZigBee Smart Energy Profile (SEP) aims to support the needs of smart metering and AMI, and provide communication among utilities and household devices
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada10 Z-wave Z-Wave is a proprietary, short-range, low-data rate wireless RF mesh networking standard Z-wave uses the 908MHz ISM band in the Americas, and its data rate is 40kbps Z-wave provides connectivity for devices such as; lamps, switches, thermostats, garage doors. Z-wave can be employed in the HAN segment of the smart grid
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada11 IEEE WiFi Data rate of IEEE standards range from 1 Mbps to 100 Mbps It operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band Wi-Fi is targeting Home Area Networks (HAN), Neighborhood Area Networks (NAN) and Field Area Networks (FAN) in the smart grid Wi-Fi is already being used for municipal-scale network infrastructures outdoors
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada12 IEEE WIMAX WIMAX uses the licensed bands of GHz The IEEE standard also allows the use of license- exempt sub 11GHz bands WIMAX can provide theoretical data rates up to 70Mbps The communication range is around 50km for fixed stations and almost 5km for mobile stations WIMAX can provide long range communications for the smart grid
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada13 LTE and LTE-A The peak data rates for LTE is around 300Mbps at the downlink and 80Mbps at the uplink with 20MHz channel bandwidth and 4x4 MIMO antennas LTE-As targeted peak downlink transmission rate is 1Gbps and the uplink transmission rate is 500Mbps A typical LTE cell has a diameter of 4km By relaying technique, range can be extended
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada14 IEEE –Cognitive Radio Cognitive Radio (CR) provides access to unlicensed users to the spectrum that is not utilized by licensed users A CR has the ability to sense unused spectrum, use it and then vacate as soon as a licensed user arrives The bands that are planned to be used by are the UHF/VHF bands between 54 and 862 MHz and their guard bands
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada15 Power Line Communications Power Line Communications (PLC) use the low voltage power lines as the communication medium PLC has been already used by some utilities for load control and remote metering It can be integrated to the smart metering system since the power lines already reach the meter As the PLC does not have external cabling cost, it is considered to be convenient for HANs, NANs and FANs in the smart grid
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada16 IEEE P1901/Broadband over Power Lines BPL has high data rates exceeding 100 Mbps using frequencies below 100 MHz P1901 workgroup has selected two physical layers for the standard Wavelet OFDM-based PHY FFT OFDM-based PHY. These PHY techniques aim to improve the communication over the noisy power lines
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada17 ITU-T G.hn G.hn standard is developed for communication in residential premises, offices, hotels, etc. G.hn is able to operate over all types of in-home wiring including phone line, power line, coaxial cable, and Cat-5 cable It uses a windowed OFDM-based PHY with a programmable set of parameters G.hn can support bit rates up to 1Gbps G.hn devices aim to be interoperable with power line devices that use the IEEE P1901 standard
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada18 ANSI/CEA-709 ANSI/CEA-709 series of standards have been developed for home control and automation ANSI/EIA is also known as Lonworks Lonworks platform is a proprietary technology Lonworks operates in the MHz band Data rates of Lonworks can reach up to a few kbps NIST has included Lonworks as a candidate standard along with IEEE P1901 and ITU G.hn
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada19 Fiber Optic Communications Fiber optics is already used in the power grid to connect utility head offices and substations Fiber optics is not impacted by electromagnetic interference It is ideal for the high voltage operating environment Its major drawback of fiber is high deployment cost Optic Ethernet can be also utilized in the smart grid It is also possible to employ a combination of the wireless and wired communication technologies in the smart grid
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada20 Comparison of Communication Standards
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada21 Communication Enabled Smart Grid Applications Direct Load Control (DLC) Wireless sensor network (WSN)-based demand management iPower Sensor web services for energy management Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications based demand management Energy saving applications on appliances Electric vehicle demand management
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada22 Direct Load Control (DLC) DLC means passing the control of several appliances to the utility or an aggregator Appliances that can be remotely controlled are pool pumps and the heating/cooling appliances A pilot study in Australia has shown that cycling air conditioners have resulted in 17% of peak load reduction DLC requires simple communications between the consumers and the utility Utility commands can be delivered to the customers through smart meters Zigbee or one of the PLC standards can be a suitable option for DLC
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada23 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)-based Demand Management in-Home Energy Management (iHEM) is a non- intrusive, interactive demand management scheme Energy Management Unit and appliances communicate wirelessly over the WSN iHEM aims to shift consumer demands to off-peak hours Unlike, DLC, iHEM suggests convenient start times for the appliances
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada24 Intelligent and Personalized energy conservation system by wireless sensor networks (iPower) iPower: Implements an energy conservation application for multi- dwelling homes and offices Employs a WSN, a control server, power-line control devices and user identification devices Sensor nodes are deployed in each room and they monitor the rooms with light, sound and temperature sensors They form a multi-hop WSN and send their measurements to the gateway when an event occurs iPower combines wireless and power line communication technologies
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada25 Sensor web services for energy management Energy management application is a suit of three energy management modules: The first module enables users to learn the energy consumption of their appliances while they are away from home The second module is a load shedding application for the utilities Load shedding is applied to the air conditioning appliances when the load on the grid is criticalLoad shedding is applied to the air conditioning appliances when the load on the grid is critical The third module offers an application for energy generating customers Customers can monitor and control the amount of energy stored and energy sold back to the grid while they are away from homeCustomers can monitor and control the amount of energy stored and energy sold back to the grid while they are away from home These applications utilize sensor web services
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada26 Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications based demand management M2M communications have been implemented in the Whirlpool Smart Device Network (WSDN) WSDN consists of HAN, the Internet and AMI WSDN utilizes several technologies together Wi-Fi connects the smart appliances and forms the HAN ZigBee and PLC connect the smart meters in the AMI Broadband Internet connects consumers to the Internet It enables remote access to appliance energy consumption It also provides load shedding capabilities to utilities during critical peaks
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada27 Energy saving applications on appliances An appliance-to-appliance communication protocol for energy saving applications Energy management protocol allows consumers to set a maximum consumption value Based on this threshold, the residential gateway is able to turn off the appliances that are in standby mode once these limits are exceeded
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada28 Electric vehicle demand management Home Gateway and Controller (HGC) communicates with the PHEV Controls its charging and discharging profile based on Status of the roof-top solar power generation unitStatus of the roof-top solar power generation unit Demands of the smart appliancesDemands of the smart appliances HGC also communicates with the other HGC devices in the neighborhood and coordinates PHEV loads
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada29 Challenges in Smart Grid Communications Wireless channels are Prone to interference due to the populated ISM bandsProne to interference due to the populated ISM bands Have lower bandwidth than wired communication technologiesHave lower bandwidth than wired communication technologies Do not penetrate well through concrete constructionDo not penetrate well through concrete construction Their range is limitedTheir range is limited The impact of harsh smart grid environment on wireless communications is not explored wellThe impact of harsh smart grid environment on wireless communications is not explored well Powerline communications suffer from Noisy channel conditionsNoisy channel conditions Channel characteristics that vary depending on the devices plugged inChannel characteristics that vary depending on the devices plugged in Electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to unshielded power linesElectromagnetic interference (EMI) due to unshielded power lines Poor isolation among unitsPoor isolation among units
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada30 Security in Smart Grid Communications The potential security risks identified by NIST: Increased complexity causing device misconfiguration based errors Increased number of interconnections increase the risks of denial of service attacks, injection of malicious software and compromised hardware Increased number of network nodes increase the number of entry points and paths that might be exploited by adversaries Increased amount of data increase the risk of compromising data and violating user privacy
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada31 Privacy in Smart Grid Communications Consumer privacy may be violated if high resolution electricity consumption data is made available to malicious users By looking at the consumption, it is possible to obtain information on absence or presence, the number of individuals in the property, sleep cycles, meal times, etc. A PHEVs location can be tracked from its charging location Sophisticated attacks may benefit from data leakage from consumer premises
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada32 Summary and Conclusions Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are eventually becoming integrated to electrical power grid to improve the grids reliability, efficiency, security and reduce its environmental impact Available communication technologies can be considered as foundations for yet-to-emerge smart grid communication technologies that will truly answer the needs of the smart grid More research is needed to overcome the challenges of communication in the smart grid environment
© University of Ottawa, ON, Canada33 Thanks for your attention!
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