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Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - 0000 X Supporting Slides Professor David K Harrison.

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Presentation on theme: "Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - 0000 X Supporting Slides Professor David K Harrison."— Presentation transcript:

1 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld X Supporting Slides Professor David K Harrison Glasgow Caledonian University Dr David J Petty The University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing: Systems and Management for Competitive Manufacture ISBN

2 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - 01 Manufacturing Systems Objectives To Understand the Concept of a Manufacturing System To Understand the Different Types of Manufacturing Systems To Appreciate the Importance of Manufacturing Strategy Overview Manufacturing and the Enterprise Classification of Manufacturing Organisations Design of Manufacturing Systems 0101

3 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Economic Role of Manufacturing 01 Agriculture and Construction 0102

4 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Definitions Process. A means of transforming material from one form into another System. A number of entities acting together as a whole Manufacturing System. A series of value adding manufacturing processes to convert raw materials into more useful forms and eventually finished product

5 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - History CraftMechanisationSoft Eng. Power Organisation Formalisation Technology

6 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - 01 The Manufacturing System Process QueueProcess Warehouse Process Queue Process Warehouse Queue Process Queue Process Warehouse Raw Materials Finished Product 0105

7 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - 01 The Manufacturing Organisation Production Engineering Design & Product Development Sales Production Planning & Control PurchasingAccounts Quality Raw Materials Finished Product Customer Base Supplier Base Warehouse Process Queue Process Queue 0106

8 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Process Control Low Level Planning Intermediate Planning Master Planning Aggregate Planning 01 Scope of Manufacturing Management Strategic Tactical Operational Physical 10 Years 1 Year 1 Month 1 Day Decisions: High Frequency Low Significance Decisions: Low Frequency High Significance Corporate Planning 0107

9 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - 01 Classification and Characteristics Size Type of Product Market Machine Layout Technology Material Flow Small Medium Large Chemical Metal working Electronic MTS MTO CTO ETO Fixed Position Process Product Cellular CNC FMS Manual Job Batch Mass Process Product Complexity High Low MassJobBatch Control Complexity High Low Variety Finished Goods Components Or Sub-Assemblies Raw Materials "D" P" 0108

10 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Stock and Manufacturing Systems - 1 Make to Stock Configure to Order Make to Order WarehouseProcess Buffer WarehouseBuffer Process WarehouseProcess Buffer It is Desirable to Commit Material as Late as Possible Holding Material at a Low Level will Minimise Stockholding

11 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - 01 Strategy Statement of Aims Analysis of Environment Statement of Objectives Strategic Choice Actions Monitoring and Control Formulation Implementation What is the Purpose of the Organisation? What is the Status of the Organisation? What is the Desired State of the Organisation? How Will the Desired State be Achieved? SWOT Analysis Matrix Analysis Mission Statement Targets Marketing Strategy Manufacturing Strategy I.T. Strategy

12 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - SWOT Analysis/Matrix Analysis 01 Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats S – Well Qualified in Engineering as a Technical Discipline W – Lack of Business/Financial Knowledge to Achieve Promotion to Senior Management O – Solid Analytical Background Could Provide the Chance to Move into Systems/IT Related Areas T – Manufacturing Declining in the West and Wages Could be Further Depressed Engineering Students Cows. These generate cash. Calves. These consume cash, but will generate money in the future. Dogs. These consume cash and always will. 0111

13 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Corporate/Manufacturing Strategy Manufacturing Strategy 01 Financial Growth Corporate Strategy Innovation Markets Volumes Variety Mix Marketing Strategy Processes Inventory Process Choice Organisation Controls Infrastructure Qualifying Winning Order Winning Criteria 0112

14 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - 01 Choice of Technology - 1 Variety Volume , , ,000 Batch Flow FMS FMC Individual Machine Transfer Line Increasing Flexibility Increasing Cost per Piece 0113

15 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Choice of Technology – 2 Soft Automation is Becoming Increasingly Common

16 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - FMS and FMC 01 Machine 3 Machine 4 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 6 Machine 5 Machining Pallets System Controller Load Unload Machine 2 Machine 1 Load Unload Robot 0115

17 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Flexible Assembly Line 01 Pallets Magazines Work carrier Manual Station Non-synchronous transfer machine 0116

18 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Flexible Assembly Cell 01 Vibratory bowl feeder Conveyor for completed assembly Conveyor for base parts Assembly robot Parts presented in pallet Parts presented in magazines Work fixture General purpose gripper Gripper/Finger storage rack 0117

19 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Equipment Layout - 1 Fixed Position Material Equipment Types

20 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Lathe Mill Grinder Drill Grinder Mill Lathe Functional Equipment Layout

21 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Group Cell 1 MillGrinder DrillLathe Cell 2 MillGrinder DrillLathe GrinderDrill Flowline 1 Lathe MillGrinderDrill Flowline 2 LatheMillGrinderDrill Flowline 3 LatheMillGrinderDrill Flowline 4 Mill Equipment Layout

22 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Flow Process 1234 Equipment Layout –

23 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Hierarchical Organisation – Example Division Site AftermarketRailways Original Equipment AutoComp Braking Products UK Linings Press Form Disc Brake Pads Press Cure Disc Brake Pads Mixing Block Plate Preparation PressingFinishing Cell A Cell B Cell C Cell D M/C 1M/C 5M/C 2M/C 3M/C 4M/C 6 AutoComp Braking Dept. Machine Group Corporate Other Divisions Other Sites Business Unit AutoComp plc

24 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Proximity to Materials/Sub-Contractors Proximity to Markets Availability of Space Quality of Infra-structure Availability of Labour Availability of Grants Political Stability Geographical Location

25 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Functional Layout Design Sometimes Called Process Orientated Traditional Layout Method Unfashionable, but has Several Advantages Obligatory in Some Circumstances Common in Service Environments Layout is a Universal Problem

26 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Functional Layout Design Physical Modelling Computer Heuristic Methods Simulation Methods Cross and Relationship Charts

27 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Cross Chart Example From Process To Process B C D E F G H I J BCDEJFGHI A A

28 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Generation of a Cross Chart Product Projected Sales Number of Batches Lot Size ADS1029 ASS5431 DDF8897 HGF6509 UAC A A A A A B B B C C C C D D D E E E F F F F F G G G G G H H H H H I I I J J Routing Sales Planning Data Planning Data Routing Data Product From Process To Process B C D E F G H I J BCDEJFGHI A A

29 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld Layout Representation – 1 ABC DEF A ABCDEF B D E F C From To AB CD E F Minimise Non-Adjacent Loads

30 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Layout Representation – 2 AB C DEF CD E F AB Minimises Transport Distances An Iterative Process Needs Quantitative Data Can be Used for Service Layouts

31 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - I E Relationship Chart A U X O Absolutely Important Ordinarily Important Especially Important Unimportant Undesirable From Process To Process B C D E F G H I J BCDEJFGHI A A I A U U U U U U U U U UU U U U U U U I IO O A B C D E F G H I J U U UU UUU A A A A A A A A U E I U U O U

32 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Relationship Chart – Example A2% to 5% E3% to 10% I5% to 15% O10% to 25% URemainder A E I O U X Production 1 Production 2 Offices Despatch R & D Tool Room A A E X XI E U U U O U O I U Prod. 1 Prod. 2 R & D Desp. Tool R. Off. Original Prod. 1 R & DDesp. Tool R. Off. Prod. 2 Revised No X Lines

33 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Location of New Resources

34 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Cost Surface

35 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Summary Functional Layout has Advantages Movement is Non-Value Adding Many Techniques for Layout Good Layout is Critical

36 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Cellular Manufacturing – Overview No Universal Definition But Common Themes A Grouping Within a Larger Organisation Produces a Family of Products Has Significant Autonomy Self-Contained to Some Degree Can be Measured Independently

37 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Functional Layout – Disadvantages There Are Some Fundamental Disadvantages in Terms of Material Flow

38 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Group Technology Lathe Grinder Drill Flowline 1 Lathe Mill Grinder Drill Flowline 2 LatheMill Grinder Drill Flowline 3 LatheMill Grinder Drill Flowline 4 Mill

39 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Coding Systems - The Salford Method 1st Digit Tool Class 2nd Digit External Shape 3rd Digit Internal Shape 4th Digit Geometry or Flange Detail 5th Digit6th Digit Complexity Factor Single Station Compound Fine Blanking Progressive Transfer (Moving Punch) Transfer (Moving Die) Four Slide (Single) Four Slide (Double) Special Flat, Bent, Hollow Combinations Shape Definition of Number of Dias and Tapers Definition of Contour data Aperture Definition of Component Reversal Aperture Definition Number of Contour Vectors Number of Contour Vectors Flange Characteristics Number of and/or Dias Features Number of Bends Complexity Factor Complexity Factor Complexity Factor Technological Production Flow Analysis was also Used

40 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - GT Cells Cell 1 Mill Grinder DrillLathe Cell 2 Mill Grinder DrillLathe GrinderDrill Flowline 1 Lathe GrinderDrill Flowline 2 LatheGrinderDrill Flowline 3 LatheGrinderDrill Flowline 4 Mill Lathe

41 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Product/Process Matrix – 1 Process Product

42 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Product/Process Matrix – A Process Product BCD

43 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Pre-Requisites for the GT Approach Inappropriate Use of GT Can Reduce Utilisation and Flexibility Both GT Flowlines and GT Cells Might be Called Cells Today

44 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Capacity and Flowlines 12 Units/Hr 5 Mins/Unit 10 Units/Hr 6 Mins/Unit 12 Units/Hr 5 Mins/Unit Overall Production Rate = 10 Units per Hour Simple Case – Slowest Work Centre Determines Rate 01 Work Centre 2 Work Centre 3 Work Centre

45 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Multi-Machine Manning How Should Labour be Allocated?

46 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - A B C D E F G H I J K L Line Balancing - Precedence Diagram Particularly Applied for Repetitive Assembly Problems

47 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Line Balancing – Precedence Table 01 Element (Min) A B C D E F G H I J K L Time Preceded By A A A B B, C D D E F, G H I, J, K Same Data as Previous Slide But in Tabular Form 0146

48 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - B C D E F G H I J K Work CentreElementTime Work Centre Sum A L H F E I J L B D C K A G Largest Candidate Method Elements Sorted into Size Order 0147

49 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Largest Candidate Method – 2 T wc = Total of All Elements d = Balance Delay (or Balance Loss) In the previous example, T wc = 48.5 and n =

50 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - RPW Method – 1 Ranked Positional Weight (RPW) Similar to Largest Candidate Only Difference is in Choosing Elements The RPW Value for an Element is the Sum of Downstream Elements B C D E F G H I J K A L 3.2 Examples of RPW Calculations RPW for J = J + L= 8.1 Minutes RPW for F = F + J + L= 10.1 Minutes RPW for B = B + E + I + L + F + J= 23.8 Minutes Thus to Find the RPW value for an Element, Trace All of the Paths Through the Network to the End

51 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - RPW Method – 2 Work CentreElementTime B C D E F G H I J K A L A L F D G C H E I B J K Work Centre Sum 01 Elements Sorted into RPW Order 0150

52 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - RPW Method – 3 In the previous example, T wc = 48.5 and n = 5 In this case, the RPW Gives the Best Result In Other Cases, Largest Candidate Might Give the Best Result

53 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - ABCD Sequential Slowest Rate 5 Mins/Unit6 Mins/Unit5 Mins/Unit4 Mins/Unit BC 6 Mins/Unit Shared Resource Sum of Times 6 Unit/min 4 Mins/Unit Parallel Work Centres Sum of Rates Material Flow Rules BB 01 6 Unit/min 0152

54 Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing Produced by D K Harrison and D J Petty 21/04/02 Sld - Course Book Systems for Planning & Control in Manufacturing: Systems and Management for Competitive Manufacture Professor David K Harrison Dr David J Petty ISBN X 0000


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