Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 2 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy Author: Wayne.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy Author: Wayne."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy Author: Wayne

2 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 2 The law of reflection: The angle of reflection (qr) equals the angle of incidence (qi). FIGURE 2.1

3 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 3 The image of a point formed by a plane mirror can be determined by using the law of reflection. Draw several rays that obey the law of reflection. The rays diverge when they enter the eye. The brain imagines that the diverging rays originated from a single point behind the mirror. The place where the rays appear to originate is known as the virtual image. FIGURE 2.2

4 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 4 A virtual image produced by the eye and the brain of a person looking at a reflection of an object in a plane mirror. FIGURE 2.3

5 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 5 Diffuse reflection from a rough surface. The angle of reflection still equals the angle of incidence, but there are many angles of reflection. You can tell if a reflective surface is rough or smooth by observing if the reflection is diffuse or specular. FIGURE 2.4

6 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 6 When light strikes a partially silvered mirror, some of the light is reflected and some of the light is transmitted. In this way, a partially silvered mirror functions as a beam splitter. FIGURE 2.5

7 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 7 A beam of light, propagating parallel to the principal axis of a concave mirror, is brought to a focus after it reflects off the mirror. The focal point is equal to one-half the radius of curvature. FIGURE 2.6

8 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 8 A virtual erect image is formed by the eye and brain of a person looking at the reflection of an object placed between the focus and a concave mirror. The virtual image of a point appears at the location from which the rays of that point appear to have originated. FIGURE 2.7

9 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 9 A real inverted image is produced by a concave mirror when the object is placed in front of the focal point. The further the object is from the focal point, the smaller the image, and the closer the image is to the focal plane. FIGURE 2.8

10 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 10 When an object is placed at the radius of curvature of a concave mirror, a real inverted image that is the same size as the object is produced at the radius of curvature by a concave mirror. When the object is the filament of a lamp, a concave mirror returns the rays going in the wrong direction so that the lamp will appear twice as bright. FIGURE 2.9

11 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 11 A virtual erect image is formed by a person looking at the reflection of an object placed anywhere in front of a convex mirror. The virtual image of a point appears at the location from which the rays of that point appear to have originated. FIGURE 2.10

12 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 12 Because of the law of reflection, where the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence, a spherical mirror does not focus parallel rays to a point, but instead produces a zone of confusion. This spherical aberration results because the rays that strike the distal regions of the mirror are bent too strongly to go through the focus. Spherical aberration can be prevented by gradually and continuously decreasing the radius of curvature of the distal regions of a concave mirror. Decreasing the radius of curvature gradually and continuously results in a parabolic mirror without any spherical aberration. FIGURE 2.11

13 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 13 An observer (A) is looking over the rim of a dish so he or she can just not see a coin placed at B when the dish is full of air. As water is gradually added to the dish the rays coming from the coin are refracted at the water–air interface so that they will enter the eye. Consequently, the coin will become visible to the observer. Thinking that light travels in straight lines, the observer will think that the coin is at C. FIGURE 2.12

14 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 14 Rays from stars are refracted as they enter the Earths atmosphere. Since we think that light travels in straight lines, we see the image of the star higher in the sky than it actually is. FIGURE 2.13

15 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 15 When light travels from air to glass it is bent or refracted toward the normal. By contrast, when light travels from glass to air, it is bent away from the normal. This behavior is codified by the Snell- Descartes law that states that the sine of the angle of incidence times the refractive index of the incident medium equals the sine of the angle of transmission times the refractive index of the transmission medium. FIGURE 2.14

16 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 16 The refractive index of a medium is a function of the wavelength of light. This is the reason that a prism can disperse or resolve white light into its various color components. FIGURE 2.15

17 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 17 When a light ray travels from a medium with a higher refractive index to a medium with a lower refractive index, the angle of refraction can be greater than 90°, resulting in internal reflection. The critical angle qc is the incident angle that gives an angle of refraction of 90°. FIGURE 2.16

18 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 18 Light traveling from air through a piece of glass with parallel sides and back through air is slightly displaced compared with where the light would have been had it passed through only air. The degree of displacement depends on the thickness of the glass and its refractive index. The light that leaves the glass is parallel to the light that enters the glass because the refraction at the far side of the glass reverses the refraction at the near side. FIGURE 2.17

19 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 19 When the two surfaces of the glass are not parallel, but form a prism, the refraction that takes place on the far side does not reverse the effect of the refraction that takes place on the near side. The second refraction amplifies the first refraction and the incident light is bent toward the base of the prism. FIGURE 2.18

20 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 20 Two prisms, with their bases cemented together, bend the incident light propagating parallel to the bases of the prisms toward the bases. The prisms do not have the correct shape to focus parallel light to a point since the rays that strike the two corresponding prisms farther and farther from the principal axis will converge at greater and greater distances from the double prism. FIGURE 2.19

21 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 21 A lentil-shaped surface has the correct geometry to focus parallel rays to a point. FIGURE 2.20

22 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 22 A lentil-shaped biconvex piece of glass focuses parallel rays when the refractive index of the lens nl is greater than the refractive index of the medium nm. When the refractive index of the medium is greater than the refractive index of the lens, the lens must be biconcave to focus parallel rays. Whether a lens is converging or diverging is not a function of the lens alone but of the lens and its environment. FIGURE 2.21

23 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 23 Image formation by a converging lens with focal length f. The object with height yo and the image with height yi are distances so and si from the lens, respectively. xo = so – f and xi _ si – f. FIGURE 2.22

24 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 24 Three pairs of similar triangles made by the rays shown in Figure FIGURE 2.23

25 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 25 The lenses found in a microscope are composed of more than one element. FIGURE 2.24

26 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 26 Two converging lenses that are separated by a distance greater than the sum of their focal lengths form a real erect image. FIGURE 2.25

27 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 27 Image formation by two converging lenses separated by a distance smaller than either of their focal lengths. FIGURE 2.26

28 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 28 Finding the image produced by the first lens of the pair shown in Figure 2-26, if the second lens were not there and deducing the ray that would go through the center of the second lens if it were there. FIGURE 2.27

29 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 29 Why does the reflected light go from A to B by striking point C on the mirror instead of rushing to the mirror and striking it at D or rushing from the mirror after it strikes it at F? FIGURE 2.28

30 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 30 B and B¢ are equidistant to the mirror. BC = B¢C and EB = EB¢. FIGURE 2.29

31 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 31 The shortest distance between two points is a straight line. Since AB¢ = is a straight line and AB¢ = AB, the shortest distance between A and B is when < ACN = < BCN, or the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. FIGURE 2.30

32 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 32 Using Fermats Principle as the basis of the Snell-Descartes law, a = x + (a–x). FIGURE 2.31

33 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 33 A ray propagating through a specimen composed of layers with various refractive indices and thicknesses has an optical path length. The optical path length differs from the length itself. The optical path length is obtained by finding the product of the refractive index and thickness of each layer and then summing the products for all the layers. FIGURE 2.32

34 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 34 On a hot day, when we look down at the road ahead of us, we see the image of a tree or clouds on the road because light obeys Fermats Principle and travels to our eyes in an arc. However, we think that light travels through a medium with a continuously varying refractive index in straight lines. FIGURE 2.33

35 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 35 Spherical aberration occurs because the rays from any given object point that hit a lens with spherical surfaces far from the principal axis are refracted too strongly. This results in a circle of confusion. Spherical aberration can be reduced by grinding the lens so that it has aspherical surfaces. FIGURE 2.34

36 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 36 Chromatic aberration occurs because the refractive index of glass is color-dependent. This results in the violet-blue rays being more strongly refracted by glass than the orange-red rays. FIGURE 2.35

37 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 37 Chromatic aberration can be reduced by combining a diverging lens made of flint glass with a converging lens made of crown glass. Because the flint glass has a greater dispersion than the crown glass, the chromatic aberration produced by the crown glass is reduced more than the magnification produced by the crown glass is reduced. FIGURE 2.36

38 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 38 The image plane of a converging lens is not flat. Additional lens elements must be added to the converging lens to decrease the focal length of the image close to the axis. FIGURE 2.37

39 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 39 The lonely fungi obey the laws of geometric optics. In air, light is focused on the far side of the cylindrical sporangiophore, and the fungus bends toward the light source. In a high refractive index medium, light is dispersed over the far side of the sporangiophore and is brightest on the side closest to the light source. In this case, the fungus bends away from the light source. FIGURE 2.38

40 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 40 The cornea and lens of the human eye act as a converging lens that throws an image on the retina. FIGURE 2.39

41 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 41 The closer an object is to our eye, the larger is the visual angle made by the object and the eye, and the larger the image is on the retina. FIGURE 2.40

42 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy. by Wayne Copyright © 2009 by Academic Press. All rights reserved. 42 When a small object is placed at the near point of the naked eye, we still cannot see it clearly, because the visual angle is too small and the image falls on a single cone. A lens placed between the object and the eye produces an enlarged image on the retina. The size of the image on the retina is the same as that that would be produced by a magnified version of the object placed at the near point of our eye. FIGURE 2.41


Download ppt "Chapter 2 Companion site for Light and Video Microscopy Author: Wayne."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google