# Finite Element Method CHAPTER 5: FEM FOR BEAMS

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Finite Element Method CHAPTER 5: FEM FOR BEAMS
for readers of all backgrounds G. R. Liu and S. S. Quek CHAPTER 5: FEM FOR BEAMS

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION FEM EQUATIONS Shape functions construction
Strain matrix Element matrices Remarks EXAMPLE

INTRODUCTION The element developed is often known as a beam element.
A beam element is a straight bar of an arbitrary cross-section. Beams are subjected to transverse forces and moments. Deform only in the directions perpendicular to its axis of the beam.

INTRODUCTION In beam structures, the beams are joined together by welding (not by pins or hinges). Uniform cross-section is assumed. FE matrices for beams with varying cross-sectional area can also be developed without difficulty.

FEM EQUATIONS Shape functions construction Strain matrix
Element matrices

Shape functions construction
Consider a beam element Natural coordinate system:

Shape functions construction
Assume that In matrix form: or

Shape functions construction
To obtain constant coefficients – four conditions At x= -a or x = -1 At x= a or x = 1

Shape functions construction
or or

Shape functions construction
Therefore, where in which

Strain matrix Therefore, where (Second derivative of shape functions)

Element matrices Evaluate integrals

Element matrices Evaluate integrals

Element matrices

Remarks Theoretically, coordinate transformation can also be used to transform the beam element matrices from the local coordinate system to the global coordinate system. The transformation is necessary only if there is more than one beam element in the beam structure, and of which there are at least two beam elements of different orientations. A beam structure with at least two beam elements of different orientations is termed a frame or framework.

EXAMPLE Consider the cantilever beam as shown in the figure. The beam is fixed at one end and it has a uniform cross-sectional area as shown. The beam undergoes static deflection by a downward load of P=1000N applied at the free end. The dimensions and properties of the beam are shown in the figure. P=1000 N 0.5 m 0.06 m 0.1 m E=69 GPa =0.33

EXAMPLE Step 1: Element matrices

EXAMPLE Step 1 (Cont’d): Step 2: Boundary conditions

EXAMPLE Step 2 (Cont’d): Therefore, Kd=F where dT = [ v2 2] ,

EXAMPLE Step 3: Solving FE equation Two simultaneous equations
v2 = x 10-4 m 2 = x 10-3 rad Substitute back into first two equations of Kd=F

Remarks FE solution is the same as analytical solution
Analytical solution to beam is third order polynomial (same as shape functions used) Reproduction property

CASE STUDY Resonant frequencies of micro resonant transducer

CASE STUDY Number of 2-node beam elements Natural Frequency (Hz)
Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 10 x 105 x 106 x 106 20 x 105 x 106 x 106 40 x 105 x 106 x 106 60 Analytical Calculations x 105 x 106 x 106

CASE STUDY

CASE STUDY

CASE STUDY

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