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Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 R. Nagarajan, S. Awad and K.R. Gopi.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 R. Nagarajan, S. Awad and K.R. Gopi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 R. Nagarajan, S. Awad and K.R. Gopi

2 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.1 Finite element simulation of propagation of megasonic waves in a tank [12]

3 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.2 Micro-streaming in a megasonic field [15]

4 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.3 Cross-sectional diagrams of (a) ultrasonic and (b) megasonic cleaners [18]

5 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.4 Ultrasonic cavitations and cleaning

6 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.5 Growth and collapse (implosion) of a cavitation bubble

7 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.6 Cavitation strength as a function of frequency

8 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.7 Cavitation abundance varies with frequency

9 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.8 Change in boundary layer thickness (relative to contaminant size) from ultrasonic to megasonic regime

10 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.9 The relationship between frequency and boundary layer thickness for room temperature water (theoretical simulation)

11 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.10 Effect of acoustic field parameters on streaming velocity [23]

12 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.11 Moment ratio model for particle removal from a surface. M R is the removal moment; M A is the adhesion resisting moment; F drag is the drag force; F Adhesion is the adhesion force; F elec double layer is the electric double layer force; R is the particle radius; a is the contact radius between the deformed particle and the surface [23]

13 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.12 Experimental and theoretical particle removal efficiencies. Si-cap refers to a 4 nm silicon capping layer on the wafer [23]

14 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.13 Fluid motion generated by a sound field [24]

15 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.14 Removal and adhesion forces on a spherical particle [25]

16 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.15 Variation of streaming velocity with frequency

17 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.16 Optical principle of the liquid particle counter

18 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.17 Schematic diagram of a nephelometer

19 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.18 Cavitation meter

20 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.19 Cavitation intensity as a function of frequency and position within the cleaning tank

21 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.20 Mean cavitation intensity as a function of frequency ( kHz)

22 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.21 Influence of dissolved oxygen on the particle removal efficiency (PRE) of 34-nm SiO 2 particles [30]

23 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.22 Particle removal efficiency for 78- and 34-nm SiO 2 particles in aerated deionized (DI) water and ammonia/peroxide mixture (APM) solutions (a) with megasonic agitation and (b) without megasonic agitation [37]

24 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.23 Traditional non-sweeping megasonic power distribution in a cleaning vessel

25 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.24 Sweep megasonic power distribution in a cleaning vessel

26 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE kHz tank with sweeping (courtesy of Crest Ultrasonics Corporation, USA)

27 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.26 Cavitation intensities in center and corners of sweeping megasonics (470 kHz from MSI, Inc., USA) and traditional megasonics (430 kHz)

28 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.27 Erodibility comparison at center of tank (based on turbidity measurement on extract solution)

29 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.28 Cleanability comparison at the center of the tank based on turbidity measurement of the extract solution

30 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.29 Mean size of surface residual particles after multiple cleaning stages

31 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.30 Comparison of cleaning efficiency of swept (470 kHz) and traditional (430 kHz) megasonic cleaning

32 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.31 Defect number after various cleaning processes [36]

33 Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 2.32 Particle residue by type after various cleaning processes [36]


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