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Motion & Newton’s Laws Earth Systems

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A force is… a push or a pull. Friction, Drag, Gravity, and Weight are forces. Measured in unit N = kg m sec 2

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Background Knowledge continued... Sir Isaac Newton is famous for explaining the motion of object using mathematics. SPEED: a measurement of distance traveled in a given time. Speed = distance time Units: m/sec VELOCITY: an objects speed and direction.

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Background Knowledge continued... ACCELERATION: Change in velocity Increase in velocity: acceleration Decrease in velocity: deceleration or negative acceleration. Acceleration: final velocity – initial velocity time Units: m sec 2

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Graphing If Sally got to school on foot and bus describe her movement according to the graph. Sally walked to the bus stop at.5 km/min She sat waiting for the bus 0 km/min She rode the bus at a average speed of

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Acceleration “dot diagram” Dot represents an object’s position at different times. Acceleration: distance increases each second 1 sec 5 sec3 sec 7 sec5 sec3 sec Negative Acceleration / deceleration: distance decreases each second 7 sec

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video http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/2 9421-assignment-discovery-newtons-laws- of-motion-video.htm http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/2 9421-assignment-discovery-newtons-laws- of-motion-video.htm Assignment Discovery: Isaac Newton’s Principia Exploring the laws of motion: Newton’s 1 st law Lego video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWE_aG qfUDs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWE_aG qfUDs

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1 st Law: The Law of Inertia An object in motion will stay in motion, An object at rest will stay at rest, unless an outside force acts on it. Newton’s 1 st Law rap http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OaKc4PlrEY8 Larger mass larger inertia Smaller mass smaller inertia Example: Table cloth trick Penny in a flask Dinosaur riding on hood of car

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1 st law stated again If no unbalanced force acts on an object the object will continue moving at the same speed in the same direction If an object is not moving and at rest the object will remain at rest until an outside force acts upon it.

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Friction and gravity are the unbalanced forces that are acting on all the motion that we observe. Friction is the force that slows things down when two objects rub together. Friction slows objects until they stop, heats things up and wears them down. Gravity is the force pulling two objects together

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Newton’s 1 st Law and You Don’t let this be you. Wear seat belts. Because of inertia, objects (including you) resist changes in their motion. When the car going 80 m/hour is stopped by the brick wall, your body keeps moving at 80 m/hour.

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Inertia = Mass Bigger masses have more… Smaller masses have less inertia.

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Inertia = Resistance to… changing speed. changing direction.

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Inertia = resistance to changes in motion. Large masses resist net forces and do not accelerate much. A large mass resists changing its velocity.

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What if we put rockets on each creature? Large masses resist changing motion. Small masses change motion easily.

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2 nd Law Force = mass x acceleration Animations: \http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/29421-assignment-discovery-newtons-laws-of- motion-video.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7_fbH-muvlw&feature=related “Three laws of motion” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7_fbH-muvlw&feature=related Assignment Discovery: Newton’s Laws of Motion (http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/29421-assignment-discovery-newtons-laws-of-motion- video.htm) show for 2 nd lawhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/29421-assignment-discovery-newtons-laws-of-motion- video.htm

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2 nd Law When mass is in kilograms and acceleration is in m/s/s, the unit of force is in newtons (N). One newton is equal to the force required to accelerate one kilogram of mass at one meter/second/second.

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2 nd Law (F = m x a) How much force is needed to accelerate a 1400 kilogram car 2 meters per second/per second? Write the formula F = m x a Fill in given numbers and units F = 1400 kg x 2 meters per second/second Solve for the unknown 2800 kg meters/second/second or 2800 N

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3 rd Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

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3 rd Law According to Newton, whenever objects A and B interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other. When you sit in your chair, your body exerts a downward force on the chair and the chair exerts an upward force on your body.

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3 rd Law There are two forces resulting from this interaction - a force on the chair and a force on your body. These two forces are called action and reaction forces.

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Newton’s 3rd Law in Nature Consider the propulsion of a fish through the water. A fish uses its fins to push water backwards. In turn, the water reacts by pushing the fish forwards, propelling the fish through the water. The size of the force on the water equals the size of the force on the fish; the direction of the force on the water (backwards) is opposite the direction of the force on the fish (forwards).

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3 rd Law Flying gracefully through the air, birds depend on Newton’s third law of motion. As the birds push down on the air with their wings, the air pushes their wings up and gives them lift.

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Consider the flying motion of birds. A bird flies by use of its wings. The wings of a bird push air downwards. In turn, the air reacts by pushing the bird upwards. The size of the force on the air equals the size of the force on the bird; the direction of the force on the air (downwards) is opposite the direction of the force on the bird (upwards). Action-reaction force pairs make it possible for birds to fly.

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Other examples of Newton’s Third Law The baseball forces the bat to the left (an action); the bat forces the ball to the right (the reaction).

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3 rd Law Consider the motion of a car on the way to school. A car is equipped with wheels which spin backwards. As the wheels spin backwards, they grip the road and push the road backwards.

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3 rd Law The reaction of a rocket is an application of the third law of motion. Various fuels are burned in the engine, producing hot gases. The hot gases push against the inside tube of the rocket and escape out the bottom of the tube. As the gases move downward, the rocket moves in the opposite direction.

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Non newtonian fluid Non newtonian fluid pool http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2X Q97XHjVw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2X Q97XHjVw

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