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IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation Refactoring via Program Slicing and Sliding June 2007 Ran Ettinger Software Asset Management Group In HRL.

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Presentation on theme: "IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation Refactoring via Program Slicing and Sliding June 2007 Ran Ettinger Software Asset Management Group In HRL."— Presentation transcript:

1 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation Refactoring via Program Slicing and Sliding June 2007 Ran Ettinger Software Asset Management Group In HRL Seminar

2 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 2 Agenda When Refactoring Met Slicing… Motivating example and some definitions Original Research Question (2001) –How can program slicing and related analyses assist in building automatic tools for refactoring? Initial Results (2003) Untangling: a slice extraction refactoring [AOSD04] The need for more… Final Results (2006) Sliding on top of a formal theory for slicing-based refactoring... Some Further Challenges

3 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 3 When Refactoring Met Slicing… Refactoring is a discipline of change –Of the internal structure of a software system –Through small and well-defined source-code transformations –That preserve the (observable) behavior of the original system (program) –Demo 1: Refactoring in Eclipse Slicing is the study of meaningful subprograms When debugging unfamiliar programs programmers use program pieces called slices which are sets of statements related by their flow of data. The statements in a slice are not necessarily textually contiguous, but may be scattered through a program [Mark Weiser, CACM82 ] Given a program and a variable (at a point) of interest, a slice of the program on that variable is a subprogram that preserves the original behavior, with respect to that variable Demo 2: Slicing in Eclipse

4 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 4 When Refactoring Met Slicing… Refactoring is a discipline of change –Of the internal structure of a software system –Through small and well-defined source-code transformations –That preserve the (observable) behavior of the original system (program) –Demo 1: Refactoring in Eclipse Slicing is the study of meaningful subprograms –When debugging unfamiliar programs programmers use program pieces called slices which are sets of statements related by their flow of data. The statements in a slice are not necessarily textually contiguous, but may be scattered through a program [Mark Weiser, CACM82 ] –Given a program and a variable (at a point) of interest, a slice of the program on that variable is a subprogram that preserves the original behavior, with respect to that variable –Demo 2: Slicing in Eclipse

5 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 5 Original Research Question Initial observation: –Programmers use slices when refactoring Paraphrasing Weiser [CACM82] Context –Intercomps Cobol-to-Java –OOPSLA00 –Fowlers refactoring book [Fow] The video-store example: from procedural design to objects The research question: –How can program slicing and related analyses assist in building automatic tools for refactoring?

6 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 6 Initial Results (1) A definition of an Extract Slice mini refactoring –Given a program and a variable (at a point) of interest, extract the slice of the program on that variable as a reusable method, and update the original program to reuse the extracted slice –Can participate in solving Extract Method, Replace Temp with Query, and other known refactorings Nate: an Eclipse plugin for slice ectraction –Supporting slice extraction on a small subset of Java –Supported by an Eclipse Innovation Grant from IBM –Implemented with Mathieu Verbaere: the slicer and MSc thesis –Demo 3: The Replace Temp with Query refactoring in Eclipse+Nate An investigation of untangling refactorings to introduce aspects Untangling: a slice extraction refactoring [AOSD04, with Mathieu]

7 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 7 Initial Results (2): The Need for More State-of-the-art slice-extraction solutions –Block-based slicing by Maruyama [SSR01] –Tucking by Lakhotia and Deprez [IST98] –Procedure extraction by Komondoor and Horwitz [POPL00,IWPC03] Identified limitations (Nate and the related work) –Strong preconditions E.g. no duplication of assignments Leading to low applicability –Informal (unconvincing) correctness proof Observation/Realization: –Weakening of preconditions (i.e. improving applicability) will require a careful (preferably formal) investigation

8 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 8 Final Results (1) A formal theory of slicing-based refactoring –Based on predicate calculus and program semantics [Dijkstra and Scholten] and the refinement calculus [Back,Morgan] –Supporting a simple imperative programming language A designated slice-refinement proof method –Separate correctness proofs for extracted slice and complement –Together yield full refinement (i.e. correctness) –Works only for deterministic programs! No problem: Refactoring deals with executable code, not specifications

9 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 9 Final Results (2) A novel program decomposition into small entities called slides –Smaller than slices: Ignore data flow influences –Participates in the formation of (potentially) smaller complements A highly applicable solution to the slice-extraction refactoring problem, called sliding –A kind of code-motion transformation, like in compilers –Trading code reusability and readability with runtime efficiency –Given a program and a variable of interest, sliding extracts the variables slice from its complement; but whats in the complement? The union of all remaining slices? No. Its a union of slides: Reusing the extracted variables final value

10 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 10 Final Results (3) A concept of smaller slices called co-slicing –A co-slice is made of a (meaningful) set of slides A provably correct slicing algorithm –Based on the static-single-assignment (SSA) form –A slice is made of a set of slides, too –Why is the algorithm important? Constructive description of transformations

11 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 11 Some Further Challenges Implementing the theoretical framework and algorithms Collecting empirical results Extending to real languages Apply sliding to more refactorings (e.g. Separate Query from Modifier [Fow], arbitrary method extraction) Apply the sliding-related refactorings in bigger reengineering challenges (e.g. Convert Procedural Design to Objects [Fow], componentization, conversion to SOA) Sliding beyond refactoring (e.g. in optimizing compilers, code obfuscation)

12 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 12 Thanks! Acknowledgements –My DPhil [Ett] supervisor Oege de Moor And Mike Spivey, supervising during Oeges Sabbatical (2003) –Past and present members of the Programming Tools Group at Oxford, in particular Iván Sanabria, Yorck Hünke, Stephen Drape, Mathieu Verbaere, Damien Sereni –My thesis examiners Mark Harman and Jeremy Gibbons –Yishai Feldman and the SAM group

13 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 13 References [CACM82] Programmers use slices when debugging, M. Weiser, 1982 [Back] A calculus of refinements for program derivations, 1988 [Dijkstra and Scholten] Predicate calculus and program semantics, 1990 [Morgan] Programming from specifications (2nd ed.), 1994 [IST98] Restructuring programs by tucking statements into functions, A. Lakhotia and J.-C. Deprez, 1998 [FOW] Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, M. Fowler, 2000 [POPL00] Semantics-preserving procedure extraction, R. Komondoor and S. Horwitz, 2000 [SSR01] Automated method-extraction refactoring by using block-based slicing, K. Maruyama, 2001 [IWPC03] Effective automatic procedure extraction, R. Komondoor and S. Horwitz, 2003 [AOSD04] Untangling: a slice extraction refactoring, R. Ettinger and M. Verbaere, 2004 [Ett] Refactoring via Program Slicing and Sliding, DPhil thesis, 2006 –Submitted version http://progtools.comlab.ox.ac.uk/members/rani/sliding_thesis_esub101006.pdfhttp://progtools.comlab.ox.ac.uk/members/rani/sliding_thesis_esub101006.pdf Successfully defended on 18 January 2007, with minor corrections –Revised version http://progtools.comlab.ox.ac.uk/members/rani/sliding_thesis_rev1_150607.pdfhttp://progtools.comlab.ox.ac.uk/members/rani/sliding_thesis_rev1_150607.pdf Corrections need to be approved…

14 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 14 Backup

15 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 15 int prod=1; for (int i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2/685963/slides/slide_15.jpg", "name": "IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 15 int prod=1; for (int i=0; i

16 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 16 int sum=computeSum(a); int prod=1; for (int i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2/685963/slides/slide_16.jpg", "name": "IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 16 int sum=computeSum(a); int prod=1; for (int i=0; i

17 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 17 int prod=1; for (int i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2/685963/slides/slide_17.jpg", "name": "IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 17 int prod=1; for (int i=0; i

18 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 18 A Slicing Example Original programSlice for variable nl * Slicer developed by Mathieu Verbaere * Support a small subset of Java

19 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 19 Extract Slice: The Extracted Method

20 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 20 Extract Slice: The Complement redundant fragmentsin is not modified

21 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 21 Extract Slice as a Method (rejection) Refactoring rejected: Input statements in extracted code (internal state of in is modified)

22 IBM Haifa Research Lab © 2007 IBM Corporation 22 Example: Fowlers video-store

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