A short history of the evolution of the library catalogue record Gordon Dunsire 2009.
Presentation on theme: "RDA vocabularies and concepts Gordon Dunsire Depute Director, Centre for Digital Library Research University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland Presented."— Presentation transcript:
RDA vocabularies and concepts Gordon Dunsire Depute Director, Centre for Digital Library Research University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland Presented to staff of the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh 20 Jul 2009
Overview Part 1: Introduction to RDA Benefits to users and cataloguers Collaboration with other communities/standards Q/A and break Part 2: Introduction to the Semantic Web Concepts and methods Role of the library community Q/A and break Part 3: Putting it all together A short history of the evolution of the catalogue record
RDA vocabularies and concepts Part 1: Introduction to RDA
RDA Resource Description and Access A new standard for creating bibliographic metadata Based on the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules In development since 1841 (Panizzis rules for the British Museum) And FRBR and other more modern stuff Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records Developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Published 1998
User-centred features of RDA (1) Improves the FRBRizability of catalogues Covers all types of user Those who need to find, identify, select, obtain and use information, and manage and organize information bibliographically Covers all media Print-based, digital; textual, visual, etc. Equal, even treatment gives more control to the user in finding and choosing the most appropriate resources
FRBRisation Work Expression 1 Manifestation 1.1 Item Expression 2 Manifestation 2.1Manifestation 2.2 Item 2.1.1Item 2.2.1Item Is realised through Is embodied in Is exemplified by Symphony no.1 LSO performance DVD-A Copy on shelf
User-centred features of RDA (2) Clearly distinguishes content from carrier E.g. Moving pictures on DVD; text on CD-ROM Helpful for users with special needs E.g. restrict search to non-visual resources Multinational Anglo-centricity (and cataloguer-eccentricity) removed Abbreviations and acronyms avoided Latinisms removed Farewell s.n., s.l., et al. [Still arguing about square brackets!]
User-centred features of RDA (3) Independent of technical metadata formats Can be used with MARC, DC (Dublin Core) And a whole bunch of other acronyms Gives user familiar metadata regardless of what system is used Designed for the digital environment RDA will be published as an online product So could be incorporated in user help facilities E.g. How a preferred title for the work (uniform title) is derived
Cataloguer-centred features of RDA (1) Online product designed to interface and integrate with cataloguing modules Work-flow integration will give step-by-step and contextual access to content rules Possibility of adding local examples Possibility of myRDA, removing unwanted rules and unused options LMS vendors being kept informed Avoidance of repetitive strain injury Looking for that rule on corporate body main entry in AARC2
Cataloguer-centred features of RDA (2) More emphasis on cataloguers judgment Guidelines rather than rules Rules grouped by bibliographic element rather than format Bibliographic elements related to FRBR entities (related to user tasks) Why am I recording this information? Authority control included Generally compatible with AACR
RDA and ONIX ONIX (Online Information Exchange ) Publishing industry metadata standard 2 day workshop, March 2006, British Library, London RDA Editor, ONIX reps, facilitator Followed up via and tele-con RDA/ONIX framework for resource categorization, August 2006 Distinguishes content from carrier (at last!) Intention to extend framework Status: Resources permitting – now permitted!
RDA and DCMI DCMI (Dublin Core Metadata Initiative) 2 day meeting, April/May 2007, British Library, London RDA Editor, reps for RDA, DC and related Semantic Web communities Established the DCMI RDA Task Group Operates via wiki, , tele-con, meetings at DC annual conferences Charter: To define components of the draft standard "RDA - Resource Description and Access" as an RDF vocabulary for use in developing a Dublin Core application profile. Status: Ongoing, but nearly complete
RDA and FRBR FRBR Review Group, August 2007, WLIC (IFLA), Durban, South Africa New project: To define appropriate namespaces for FRBR (entity-relationship) in RDF and other appropriate syntaxes Status: Report and recommendations discussed at WLIC, Québec City, Canada Delayed by IFLA website re-organisation FRBR recently extended to Object-oriented FRBR (FRBRoo) Based on CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM)
RDA and FRAD Functional Requirements for Authority Data Published in May 2009 Likely to be included in the FRBR namespace project RDA designed to be FRAD-ready Generalities already incorporated, with place- holders, etc. FRAD Family entity used in RDA FRBR only defines person and corporate body entities
RDA/ONIX framework An ontology developed by RDA and the publishing community to improve metadata interoperability Set of low-level attributes for describing the content and carrier of a bibliographic resource Controlled vocabularies for some attributes Attributes combined to form high-level content and carrier types for RDA
RDA/ONIX framework example RDA content type spoken word High-level label for a framework base content category Category attributes Character: Language SensoryMode: Hearing ImageDimensionality: not applicable ImageMovement: not applicable User: what resources have content I can listen to? = OPAC: what content types have SensoryMode: Hearing? (Spoken word; Performed music; etc.) then OPAC: list bib records with these content types!
Vocabulary Mapping Framework (1) JISC-funded project to extend the RDA/ONIX framework Due for completion early November 2009 Lead by publishing community GD is consultant Will develop an ontology/categorisation of relationships between/among bibliographic entities and agent entities (parties) E.g. Manifestion is-published-by Publisher; Work is-created-by Author; Work is-derived-from Work E.g. Creator > Author, Collector, Illustrator; Author = Writer; etc.
Vocabulary Mapping Framework (2) Relationship terms from several standards will be mapped to the ontology CIDOC-CRM, RDA, FRBR, FRAD, MARC21, etc. Mappings then provide a hub-and-spoke mapping between any pair of standards Efficient, as direct pair mappings not required Will improve metadata interoperability in large- scale, heterogeneous resource discovery services Ontology, terms, mappings compatible with Semantic Web (namespaces, etc.)
RDA vocabularies and concepts Part 2: Introduction to the Semantic Web
A problem Humans are very good at processing information Creation, analysis, synthesis, communication Some say this is what defines us We have invented machines to process data Faster, globally, non-stop The result is the information eruption The Web: a continual explosion Information professionals cannot keep up We need our machines to process metadata
Semantic Web … an evolving extension of the [WWW] in which the semantics of information and services on the web is defined, making it possible for the web to understand and satisfy the requests of people and machines to use the web content. Wikipedia, English, Jul 2009 The basic building block is Resource Description Framework (RDF)
Resource Description Framework (RDF) Simple metadata statements in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions, called triples E.g. This presentation – has creator – Gordon Dunsire presentation and creator are metadata structure terms Classes and properties this... and Gordon Dunsire are metadata content terms Instances or values
Semantic Web applications RDF Schema (RDFS) Expresses the structure of metadata classes and properties Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) Expresses the basic structure and content of concept schemes such as thesauri and other types of controlled vocabularies Web Ontology Language (OWL) Explicitly represents the meaning of terms in vocabularies and the relationships between them (scope, etc.)
Machine-processing RDF is about making machine-processable statements, requiring A machine-processable language for representing RDF statements Extensible Markup Language (XML) A system of machine-processable identifiers for resources (subjects, predicates, objects) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) For full machine-processing, an RDF statement is a set of three URIs
Identifiers Things requiring identification (a URI): Subject This presentation e.g. its electronic location (URL): Predicate has creator e.g. Object Gordon Dunsire e.g. URI of entry in Library of Congress Name Authority File: Declaring vocabularies/values as namespaces in Semantic Web applications provides URIs
RDA RDF vocabularies Being added to the National Science Digital Library metadata registry Stored in a database Output as RDF(S)/SKOS Automatic creation of a URI for each entry Base domain: First part of every RDA vocabulary URI Identifies the namespace or collection/set of terms
RDA value in SKOS (part 1) : :: RDA Content Type : XML namespaces SKOS NSDL Registry Vocabulary URI
RDA value in SKOS (part 2) : :: :: spoken word :: Content expressed through language in an audible form. :: Includes recorded readings, recitations, speeches, interviews, oral histories, etc., computer-generated speech, etc. :: gesprochene Worte Umfasst aufgezeichnete Lesungen, Rezitationen, Reden, Interviews, mündliche Überlieferungen usw. und maschinell erzeugte Sprache. :: Inhalt, der durch Sprache in einer hörbaren Form ausgedrückt wird. : Term URI Term Definition Term (German)Registry status term URI
RDA value in SKOS (part 3) : :: New-Proposed :
RDA content type spoken word The term spoken word can be referenced as the value of the field content type in any metadata record using RDF/XML (Semantic Web): … xmlns:rdvct = … … The field/attribute/element content type can be referenced in a similar way to the RDF Schema for RDA elements being developed by DCMI/RDA
More library namespaces IFLA bibliographic control standards Discussions during WLIC 2008, Québec City RDF Schema for entities and relationships from Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) E.g. Work, has Expression / is Expression of Others are likely to follow: Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) ISBD/XML Task Group Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD) UNIMARC Library of Congress taking a similar approach with MARC21
RDA vocabularies and concepts Part 3: Putting it all together
A short history of the evolution of the library catalogue record
Lee, T. B. Cataloguing has a future. - Audio disc (Spoken word). - Donated by the author. 1. Metadata In the beginning the catalogue card
Author: Title: Content type: Provenance: Subject: Lee, T. B. Cataloguing has a future Spoken word Audio disc Metadata Donated by the author Carrier type: From flat-file record to relational record Name: Biography:... Name authority Term: Definition:... Subject authority Bibliographic description
Author: Title: Content type: Provenance: Subject: Lee, T. B. Cataloguing has a future Spoken word Audio disc Metadata Donated by the author Carrier type: From flat-file description to FRBR record Name: Biography:... Name authority Term: Definition:... Subject authority Bibliographic description Item Manifestation Author: Content type: Subject: Spoken word Expression Work
Lee, T. B. Metadata From FRBR record to extinction! Name: Name authority Term: Subject authority Item Manifestation Expression Work Provenance: Donated by the author Subject: Author: Title: Cataloguing has a future Content type: Spoken word Audio disc Carrier type: Term: RDA content type Term: RDA carrier type Donor: Title: Amazon/Publisher
Where is the record? Implicit, not explicit Everywhere and nowhere A semantic Web will allow machines to create the record just-in-time We will not have to maintain records just-in-case The user will have control over the presentation I want to see an archive or library or museum or Amazon or Google or Flickr or ? display And by avoiding duplication, we can all get on with describing new stuff...
The hyperdimensional (Tardis) card Lee, T. B. Cataloguing has a future. - Audio disc (Spoken word). - Donated by the author. 1. Metadata Audio shop Lee Museum Spoken word archive W3C Library TARDIS four port USB hub, for office-bound Time Lords: Open a time vortex on your desk – Pocket-lint