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1 Applications of belief propagation in low-level vision Bill Freeman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Jan. 12, 2010 Joint work with: Egon Pasztor, Jonathan Yedidia, Yair Weiss, Thouis Jones, Edward Adelson, Marshall Tappen.

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2 y1y1 Derivation of belief propagation x1x1 y2y2 x2x2 y3y3 x3x3

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3 The posterior factorizes y1y1 x1x1 y2y2 x2x2 y3y3 x3x3

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4 Propagation rules y1y1 x1x1 y2y2 x2x2 y3y3 x3x3

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5 y1y1 x1x1 y2y2 x2x2 y3y3 x3x3

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6 y1y1 x1x1 y2y2 x2x2 y3y3 x3x3

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7 Belief propagation messages ji i = j To send a message: Multiply together all the incoming messages, except from the node youre sending to, then multiply by the compatibility matrix and marginalize over the senders states. A message: can be thought of as a set of weights on each of your possible states

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8 Belief propagation: the nosey neighbor rule Given everything that Ive heard, heres what I think is going on inside your house (Given my incoming messages, affecting my state probabilities, and knowing how my states affect your states, heres how I think you should modify the probabilities of your states)

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9 Beliefs j To find a nodes beliefs: Multiply together all the messages coming in to that node. (Show this for the toy example.)

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10 Optimal solution in a chain or tree: Belief Propagation Do the right thing Bayesian algorithm. For Gaussian random variables over time: Kalman filter. For hidden Markov models: forward/backward algorithm (and MAP variant is Viterbi).

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11 Markov Random Fields Allows rich probabilistic models for images. But built in a local, modular way. Learn local relationships, get global effects out.

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12 MRF nodes as pixels Winkler, 1995, p. 32

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13 MRF nodes as patches image patches (x i, y i ) (x i, x j ) image scene scene patches

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14 Network joint probability scene image Scene-scene compatibility function neighboring scene nodes local observations Image-scene compatibility function i ii ji ji yxxx Z yxP),(),( 1 ),(,

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15 In order to use MRFs: Given observations y, and the parameters of the MRF, how infer the hidden variables, x? How learn the parameters of the MRF?

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16 Inference in Markov Random Fields Gibbs sampling, simulated annealing Iterated conditional modes (ICM) Belief propagation Application examples: super-resolution motion analysis shading/reflectance separation Graph cuts Variational methods

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17 Inference in Markov Random Fields Gibbs sampling, simulated annealing Iterated conditional modes (ICM) Belief propagation Application examples: super-resolution motion analysis shading/reflectance separation Graph cuts Variational methods

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18 y1y1 Derivation of belief propagation x1x1 y2y2 x2x2 y3y3 x3x3

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19 No factorization with loops! y1y1 x1x1 y2y2 x2x2 y3y3 x3x3 31 ),(xx

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20 Applications of belief propagation in low-level vision Bill Freeman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Jan. 12, 2010 Joint work with: Egon Pasztor, Jonathan Yedidia, Yair Weiss, Thouis Jones, Edward Adelson, Marshall Tappen.

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21 Belief, and message updates ji i = j

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22 Optimal solution in a chain or tree: Belief Propagation Do the right thing Bayesian algorithm. For Gaussian random variables over time: Kalman filter. For hidden Markov models: forward/backward algorithm (and MAP variant is Viterbi).

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23 Justification for running belief propagation in networks with loops Experimental results: –Error-correcting codes –Vision applications Theoretical results: –For Gaussian processes, means are correct. –Large neighborhood local maximum for MAP. –Equivalent to Bethe approx. in statistical physics. –Tree-weighted reparameterization Weiss and Freeman, 2000 Yedidia, Freeman, and Weiss, 2000 Freeman and Pasztor, 1999; Frey, 2000 Kschischang and Frey, 1998; McEliece et al., 1998 Weiss and Freeman, 1999 Wainwright, Willsky, Jaakkola, 2001

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24 Results from Bethe free energy analysis Fixed point of belief propagation equations iff. Bethe approximation stationary point. Belief propagation always has a fixed point. Connection with variational methods for inference: both minimize approximations to Free Energy, –variational: usually use primal variables. –belief propagation: fixed pt. equs. for dual variables. Kikuchi approximations lead to more accurate belief propagation algorithms. Other Bethe free energy minimization algorithms Yuille, Welling, etc.

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25 References on BP and GBP J. Pearl, 1985 –classic Y. Weiss, NIPS 1998 –Inspires application of BP to vision W. Freeman et al learning low-level vision, IJCV 1999 –Applications in super-resolution, motion, shading/paint discrimination H. Shum et al, ECCV 2002 –Application to stereo M. Wainwright, T. Jaakkola, A. Willsky –Reparameterization version J. Yedidia, AAAI 2000 –The clearest place to read about BP and GBP.

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26 Inference in Markov Random Fields Gibbs sampling, simulated annealing Iterated conditional modes (ICM) Belief propagation Application examples: super-resolution motion analysis shading/reflectance separation Graph cuts Variational methods

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27 Super-resolution Image: low resolution image Scene: high resolution image image scene ultimate goal...

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28 Polygon-based graphics images are resolution independent Pixel-based images are not resolution independent Pixel replication Cubic spline Cubic spline, sharpened Training-based super-resolution

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29 3 approaches to perceptual sharpening (1) Sharpening; boost existing high frequencies. (2) Use multiple frames to obtain higher sampling rate in a still frame. (3) Estimate high frequencies not present in image, although implicitly defined. In this talk, we focus on (3), which well call super-resolution. spatial frequency amplitude spatial frequency amplitude

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30 Super-resolution: other approaches Schultz and Stevenson, 1994 Pentland and Horowitz, 1993 fractal image compression (Polvere, 1998; Iterated Systems) astronomical image processing (eg. Gull and Daniell, 1978; pixons http://casswww.ucsd.edu/puetter.html)http://casswww.ucsd.edu/puetter.html Follow-on: Jianchao Yang, John Wright, Thomas S. Huang, Yi Ma: Image super-resolution as sparse representation of raw image patches. CVPR 2008

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31 Training images, ~100,000 image/scene patch pairs Images from two Corel database categories: giraffes and urban skyline.

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32 Do a first interpolation Zoomed low-resolution Low-resolution

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33 Zoomed low-resolution Low-resolution Full frequency original

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34 Full freq. original Representation Zoomed low-freq.

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35 True high freqs Low-band input (contrast normalized, PCA fitted) Full freq. original Representation Zoomed low-freq. (to minimize the complexity of the relationships we have to learn, we remove the lowest frequencies from the input image, and normalize the local contrast level).

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36 Training data samples (magnified)... Gather ~100,000 patches low freqs. high freqs.

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37 True high freqs. Input low freqs. Training data samples (magnified)... Nearest neighbor estimate low freqs. high freqs. Estimated high freqs.

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38 Input low freqs. Training data samples (magnified)... Nearest neighbor estimate low freqs. high freqs. Estimated high freqs.

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39 Example: input image patch, and closest matches from database Input patch Closest image patches from database Corresponding high-resolution patches from database

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41 Scene-scene compatibility function, (x i, x j ) Assume overlapped regions, d, of hi-res. patches differ by Gaussian observation noise: d Uniqueness constraint, not smoothness.

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42 Image-scene compatibility function, (x i, y i ) Assume Gaussian noise takes you from observed image patch to synthetic sample: y x

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43 Markov network image patches (x i, y i ) (x i, x j ) scene patches

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44 Iter. 3 Iter. 1 Belief Propagation Input Iter. 0 After a few iterations of belief propagation, the algorithm selects spatially consistent high resolution interpretations for each low-resolution patch of the input image.

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45 Zooming 2 octaves 85 x 51 input Cubic spline zoom to 340x204 Max. likelihood zoom to 340x204 We apply the super-resolution algorithm recursively, zooming up 2 powers of 2, or a factor of 4 in each dimension.

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46 True 200x232 Original 50x58 (cubic spline implies thin plate prior) Now we examine the effect of the prior assumptions made about images on the high resolution reconstruction. First, cubic spline interpolation.

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47 Cubic spline True 200x232 Original 50x58 (cubic spline implies thin plate prior)

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48 True Original 50x58 Training images Next, train the Markov network algorithm on a world of random noise images.

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49 Markov network True Original 50x58 The algorithm learns that, in such a world, we add random noise when zoom to a higher resolution. Training images

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50 True Original 50x58 Training images Next, train on a world of vertically oriented rectangles.

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