Presentation on theme: "Organizing Branden Fox --- Ryun Warren --- Mason Highbaugh --- Elizabeth Jordan -- Cody Spalding --- Connor."— Presentation transcript:
Organizing Branden Fox --- Ryun Warren --- Mason Highbaugh --- Elizabeth Jordan -- Cody Spalding --- Connor
Organizing Work Before a plan can be put into operation, the company must be organized to carry out the plan and perform work effectively. Organizing is concerned with determining how plans can be accomplished most effectively and arranging resources and relationships between departments and employees and arranging resources to complete work.
The Role of Organizational Charts Organization Chart – A drawing that shows the structure of an organization, major job classifications, and the reporting relationships among the organization’s personnel. PPurposes: To show the major work units that make up the business Allow employees to identify which unit they are affiliated with, how it relates to other units, and to whom they are accountable Identify lines of authority and formal communication within the organization
The Process Of Organizing Work Organizing involves: 1. The division of work 2. The facilities and working conditions 3. The employees
Division of Work In order to get work done effectively and efficiently, it must be broken up into smaller units. The major divisions would be into broad, natural divisions such as production, marketing, and administration. Most businesses, have departments or work units for administration, information management, and human resources. Determining how to divide work into efficient units is based on: 1. The type of work to be done in each unit. 2. The amount of work to be done.
Facilities and Working Conditions While establishing divisions of work, physical aspects must be considered: this includes providing necessary equipment and materials for employees to be able to complete their work, and arranging the layout of the facilities so that all work flows smoothly and provides the best working conditions possible. Working conditions have an effect on the morale of workers
Job satisfaction is influenced by lighting, temperature, ventilation, and cleanliness of the work areas, as well as the quality and maintenance of tools and equipment.
Employees Organizing involves establishing good relations among the employees, the work to be done, and the facilities needed, so that productivity will be high. Employees should be assigned to work that they are qualified to do as well as work that they enjoy doing. If not, problems with the quality and quantity of their work will result.
Characteristics of Good Organization The need for organization increases when two or more people work together.
Responsibility and Authority Responsibility is the obligation to do an assigned task. Everyone should know what they are responsible for doing if organized well. Authority is the right to make decisions about assigned work and to make assignments to others concerning their work.
One of the biggest mistakes in business is to assign responsibilities to employees without giving them sufficient authority to carry out those responsibilities. Each employee and manager should know specifically: 1. The description and duties of each job 2. What authority accompanies the job 3. The manager in charge 4. Who reports to the manager 5. What is considered satisfactory performance
A growing practice in many businesses is employee empowerment Empowerment is the authority given to individual employees to make decisions and solve problems they encounter on their jobs with the resources available to them. They must be well trained and effective decision- makers and problem solvers One fear of this is that managers will lose control of the organization Empowerment increases morale, produces more satisfied customers, fewer problems and increases work efficiency If employees don’t know what their responsibilities are, they will become confused and misunderstandings and conflicts will follow.
Accountability Accountability is the obligation to accept responsibility for the outcomes of assigned tasks. Accountability is the obligation to accept responsibility for the outcomes of assigned tasks. Although the manager is ultimately responsible for the work, the employee is accountable to the manager for performing the assigned work properly, including the quality, quantity, and completion time. The manager is accountable for the outcomes of all work done in the unit.
Managers evaluate employees’ work by comparing the work to established goals and work standards Managers need to communicate the goals and expected standards when assigning work and then use those same goals and standards when evaluating the employee’s work.
Unity of Command Unity of Command means that no employee reports to more than one supervisor at a time or for a particular task. If accountable to more than one supervisor, confusion occurs. Teams need clear assignments of responsibility and authority for their tasks, and all members need to know who is in charge of each activity
Span of Control Span of Control is the number of employees that any one manager supervises directly Span of Control is the number of employees that any one manager supervises directly If a manager supervises too many people they’re overworked and unable to perform all duties effectively, however, if a manager has too few to supervise, valuable time is wasted. Typically the span of control is larger at the lower levels than farter up the chain of command Companies using work teams and empowerment have found that they can increase their span of control
Types of Organizational Structures The organizational structure identifies the relationships among departments and personnel and indicates the lines of communication and decision-making. There are 4 types: 1. Line 2. Line-and-Staff 3. Matrix 4. Team
Line Organization All authority and responsibility can be traced directly from the top executive down to the lowest employee level in the organization General Manager The President ( General Manager ) has direct control over all units of the business, but responsibility, authority, and accountability are passed along from one person to another, down to the lowest level. Everyone is responsible to one manager who is responsible to someone else. Can be very efficient, but it often leads to isolation between the departments and many layers of management
Line-and-Staff Organization Managers have direct control over the units and employees they supervise but have access to staff specialists for assistance. Basically, it just adds the staff position to the Line Organization This is done to avoid the complexity and still retain the advantages of direct and definite lines of authority. Staff give advice and assistance to line personnel, but have no authority Some examples of staff specialists are: legal, information management, strategic planning, and human resources specialists.
Matrix Organization Also called a project organization, this more flexible structure organizes employees into temporary work teams to complete specific projects. Employees report to a project manager until the project is complete. Then, employees may be regrouped and given a new project manager. Work assignments and relationships are clear but temporary.
The company prepares a new organizational chart for each project, so employees know the current project structure and the management and employee relationships. Mostly used in research firms, advertising agencies, and construction companies. When employees are given new project assignments, managers must be careful to determine authority and responsibility so as not to violate unity of command.
Team Organization Divides employees into permanent work teams that have responsibility and authority for important business activities with limited management control over their daily work. These teams often have leaders rather than managers. These leaders are usually experienced employees who help their teams identify problems and work with them to solve the problems as a group. Teams report to the team leader
Self – Directed Work Teams have a manager who they can turn to for unusual or very difficult problems, but otherwise have no specific team leader or manager. The team members are responsible for the work assigned to them. Usually work together to establish goals and to plan and organize their work Members take turns as team leader Members have full authority over planning, performing, and evaluating their work May talk to other teams to get ideas Expected to talk to suppliers and customers from inside or outside the business to get input and feedback
Team members hire, fire, train, evaluate team and individual performance, and handle most of the traditional management tasks Traditional Work Team Work categories consist of many narrow tasks Worker authority is where the team leader controls all tasks done daily Rewards are based on the type of job, individual worker performance, and seniority Self-Directed Work Team Work categories consist of one or two broad tasks. Worker authority is where the team controls tasks through group decision. Rewards are based on team performance, breadth of skills of individual team members.
Effective work teams have shown an increase in productivity and improve quality. Companies that have perfected the Team Organization have shown great customer satisfaction than those who do not use it. Also they have reduced absenteeism, turnover, and kept motivation high. Teams must become skilled in 3 areas: 1. Technical job skills 2. Interpersonal Skills (Writing, speaking, discussing, and negotiating) 3. Administrative skills (leading meetings, thinking analytically, and maintaining records) New teams must have both time and support to be able to mature to their full potential
Improving Business Organization Centralized Organization, the most traditional, consists of a few top managers who do all the major planning and decision making. Larger companies use these mostly, creating complex structures that may cause communication problems and the need for many policies and rules to control the organization Managers and employees begin to feel like unimportant parts of the company and get frustrated when rules prevent them from doing something they think is important or takes a long time for decisions to be made.
In a Decentralized Organization, a very large business is divided into smaller operating units, and unit managers have almost total responsibility and authority for the operation of their units. This overcomes the problems of the centralized organization The individual units almost act as separate companies
A Flattened Organization has fewer levels of management than traditional structures (a process called flattening) The remaining managers and employees assume many of the responsibilities previously assigned to other levels of management Improved communication, because information has fewer levels to flow through. Better coordination and cooperation because there is less specialization A flexible organization is more competitive than a complex organization