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David A. Maltz Carnegie Mellon University/Microsoft Research

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Presentation on theme: "David A. Maltz Carnegie Mellon University/Microsoft Research"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rethinking Network Control & Management The Case for a New 4D Architecture
David A. Maltz Carnegie Mellon University/Microsoft Research Joint work with Albert Greenberg, Gisli Hjalmtysson Andy Myers, Jennifer Rexford, Geoffrey Xie, Hong Yan, Jibin Zhan, Hui Zhang

2 The Role of Network Control and Management
Many different network environments Access, backbone networks Data-center networks, enterprise/campus Sizes: 10-10,000 routers/switches Many different technologies Longest-prefix routing (IP), fixed-width routing (Ethernet), label switching (MPLS, ATM), circuit switching (optical, TDM) Many different policies Routing, reachability, transit, traffic engineering, robustness The control plane software binds these elements together and defines the network

3 We Can Change the Control Plane!
Pre-existing industry trend towards separating router hardware from software IETF: FORCES, GSMP, GMPLS SoftRouter [Lakshman, HotNets’04] Incremental deployment path exists Individual networks can upgrade their control planes and gain benefits Small enterprise networks have most to gain No changes to end-systems required

4 A Clean-slate Design What are the fundamental causes of network problems? How to secure the network and protect the infrastructure? How to provide flexibility in defining management logic? What functionality needs to be distributed – what can be centralized? How to reduce/simplify the software in networks? What would a “RISC” router look like? How to leverage technology trends? CPU and link-speed growing faster than # of switches

5 Three Principles for Network Control & Management
Network-level Objectives: Express goals explicitly Security policies, QoS, egress point selection Do not bury goals in box-specific configuration Reachability matrix Traffic engineering rules Management Logic

6 Three Principles for Network Control & Management
Network-wide Views: Design network to provide timely, accurate info Topology, traffic, resource limitations Give logic the inputs it needs Reachability matrix Traffic engineering rules Management Logic Read state info

7 Three Principles for Network Control & Management
Direct Control: Allow logic to directly set forwarding state FIB entries, packet filters, queuing parameters Logic computes desired network state, let it implement it Reachability matrix Traffic engineering rules Write state Management Logic Read state info

8 Overview of the 4D Architecture
Network-level objectives Decision Dissemination Direct control Network-wide views Discovery Data Decision Plane: All management logic implemented on centralized servers making all decisions Decision Elements use views to compute data plane state that meets objectives, then directly writes this state to routers

9 Overview of the 4D Architecture
Network-level objectives Decision Dissemination Direct control Network-wide views Discovery Data Dissemination Plane: Provides a robust communication channel to each router – and robustness is the only goal! May run over same links as user data, but logically separate and independently controlled

10 Overview of the 4D Architecture
Network-level objectives Decision Dissemination Direct control Network-wide views Discovery Data Discovery Plane: Each router discovers its own resources and its local environment E.g., the identity of its immediate neighbors

11 Overview of the 4D Architecture
Network-level objectives Decision Dissemination Direct control Network-wide views Discovery Data Data Plane: Spatially distributed routers/switches Can deploy with today’s technology Looking at ways to unify forwarding paradigms across technologies

12 Concerns and Challenges
Distributed Systems issues How will communication between routers and DEs survive failures in the network? Latency means DE’s view of network is behind reality. Will the control loop be stable? What is the overhead to/from the DEs? What happens in a network partition? Networking issues Does the 4D simplify control and management? Can we create logic to meet multiple objectives?

13 The Feasibility of the 4D Architecture
We designed and built a prototype of the 4D Architecture 4D Architecture permits many designs – prototype is a single, simple design point Decision plane Contains logic to simultaneously compute routes and enforce reachability matrix Multiple Decision Elements per network, using simple election protocol to pick master Dissemination plane Uses source routes to direct control messages Extremely simple, but can route around failed data links

14 Evaluation of the 4D Prototype
Evaluated using Emulab (www.emulab.net) Linux PCs used as routers (650 – 800MHz) Tested on 9 enterprise network topologies ( routers each) Example network with 49 switches and 5 DEs

15 Performance of the 4D Prototype
Trivial prototype has performance comparable to well-tuned production networks Recovers from single link failure in < 300 ms < 1 s response considered “excellent” Faster forwarding reconvergence possible Survives failure of master Decision Element New DE takes control within 1 s No disruption unless second fault occurs Gracefully handles complete network partitions Less than 1.5 s of outage

16 Fundamental Problem: Wrong Abstractions
Shell scripts Traffic Eng Management Plane Figure out what is happening in network Decide how to change it Planning tools Databases Configs SNMP netflow modems OSPF Control Plane Multiple routing processes on each router Each router with different configuration program Huge number of control knobs: metrics, ACLs, policy Link metrics OSPF BGP Routing policies OSPF BGP OSPF BGP Fix up the graphics on this slide FIB Data Plane Distributed routers Forwarding, filtering, queueing Based on FIB or labels FIB FIB Packet filters

17 Good Abstractions Reduce Complexity
Management Plane Configs Decision Plane Control Plane FIBs, ACLs FIBs, ACLs Dissemination Data Plane Data Plane All decision making logic lifted out of control plane Eliminates duplicate logic in management plane Dissemination plane provides robust communication to/from data plane switches

18 Today: Simple Things are Hard to Do
Inter-POP Links Access Networks

19 Fundamental Problem: Configurations Allow Too Many Degrees of Freedom
Computing configuration files that cause control plane to compute desired forwarding states is intractable NP-hard in many cases Requires predictive model of control plane behavior Configurations files form a program that defines a set of forwarding states Very hard to create program that permits only desired states, and doesn’t transit through bad ones Focus on what routers do, shouldn’t do. Don’t overreach the paper. Focus on architectural issues. Reviewers like the example Forwarding states allowed by configs Auto-adaptation leads to/thru bad states Direct Control avoids bad states

20 Fundamental Problem: Conflation of Issues
Ideal case: all routing information flooded to all routers inside network Robustness achieved via flooding Reality: routing information filtered and aggregated extensively Route filtering used to implement security and resource policies Route aggregation used to achieve scalability

21 4D Separates Distributed Computing Issues from Networking Issues
Distributed computing issues ! protocols and network architecture Overhead Resiliency Scalability Networking issues ! management logic Traffic engineering and service provisioning Egress point selection Reachability control (VPNs) Precomputation of backup paths

22 Future Work Scalability Structuring decision logic
Evaluate over 1-10K switches, K routes Networks with backbone-like propagation delays Structuring decision logic Arbitrate among multiple, potentially competing objectives Unify control when some logic takes longer than others Protocol improvements Better dissemination and discovery planes Deployment in today’s networks Data center, enterprise, campus, backbone (RCP)

23 Future Work Experiment with network appliances
Traffic shapers, traffic scrubbers Expand relationships with security Using 4D as mechanism for monitoring/quarantine Formulate models that establish bounds of 4D Scale, latency, stability, failure models, objectives Generate evidence to support/refute principles

24 Questions?

25 Direct Control Provides Complete Control
Zero device-specific configuration Supports many models for “pushing” routes Trivial push – convergence requires time for all updates to be receive and applied – same as today Synchronized update – updates propagated, but not applied till agreed time in the future – clock skew defines convergence time Controlled state trajectory – DE serializes updates to avoid all incorrect transient states

26 Fundamental Problem: Wrong Abstractions
interface Ethernet0 ip address interface Serial1/0.5 point-to-point ip address ip access-group 143 in frame-relay interface-dlci 28 router ospf 64 redistribute connected subnets redistribute bgp metric 1 subnets network area 0 router bgp redistribute ospf 64 match route-map 8aTzlvBrbaW neighbor remote-as neighbor distribute-list 4 in access-list 143 deny /16 access-list 143 permit any route-map 8aTzlvBrbaW deny 10 match ip address 4 route-map 8aTzlvBrbaW permit 20 match ip address 7 ip route /

27 Fundamental Problem: Wrong Abstractions
2000 Size of configuration files in a single enterprise network (881 routers) Lines in config file 1000 881 Router ID (sorted by file size)

28

29

30 Fundamental Problem: Conflating Distributed Systems Issues with Networking Issues
Routing Process D left D D Routing Process D Routing Process D D left D left Distributed Systems Concern: resiliency to link failures Solution: multiple paths through routing process graph

31 Fundamental Problem: Conflating Distributed Systems Issues with Networking Issues
Routing Process D right D Routing Process D Routing Process D D left D left Distributed Systems Concern: resiliency to link failures Solution: multiple paths through routing process graph

32 Fundamental Problem: Conflating Distributed Systems Issues with Networking Issues
Routing Process Filter routes to D D left D D Routing Process D Routing Process D D left D left Networking Concern: implement resource or security policy Solution: restrict flow of routing information, filter routes, summarize/aggregate routes

33 4D Supports Network Evolution & Expansion
Decision logic can be upgraded as needed No need for update of distributed protocols implemented in software distributed on every switch Decision Elements can be upgraded as needed Network expansion requires upgrades only to DEs, not every switch

34 Reachability Example R1 R2 Chicago (chi) New York (nyc) Data Center
Front Office R5 R3 R4 Two locations, each with data center & front office All routers exchange routes over all links

35 Reachability Example R1 R2 Chicago (chi) New York (nyc) Data Center
Front Office R5 R3 R4 chi-DC chi-FO nyc-DC nyc-FO chi-DC chi-FO nyc-DC nyc-FO

36 Reachability Example R1 R2 chi Data Center Front Office R5 nyc R3 R4
Packet filter: Drop nyc-FO -> * Permit * R1 R2 chi Data Center Front Office Packet filter: Drop chi-FO -> * Permit * R5 nyc R3 R4 chi-DC chi-FO nyc-DC nyc-FO

37 Reachability Example A new short-cut link added between data centers
Packet filter: Drop nyc-FO -> * Permit * R1 R2 chi Data Center Front Office Packet filter: Drop chi-FO -> * Permit * R5 nyc R3 R4 A new short-cut link added between data centers Intended for backup traffic between centers

38 Reachability Example R1 R2 chi Data Center Front Office R5 nyc R3 R4
Packet filter: Drop nyc-FO -> * Permit * R1 R2 chi Data Center Front Office Packet filter: Drop chi-FO -> * Permit * R5 nyc R3 R4 Oops – new link lets packets violate security policy! Routing changed, but Packet filters don’t update automatically

39 Prohibiting Packets from chi-FO to nyc-DC

40 Reachability Example R2 R1 chi Data Center Front Office R5 nyc R3 R4
Packet filter: Drop nyc-FO -> * Permit * R2 R1 chi Data Center Front Office Packet filter: Drop chi-FO -> * Permit * R5 nyc R3 R4 Typical response – add more packet filters to plug the holes in security policy

41 Reachability Example R2 R1 chi Data Center Front Office R5 nyc R3 R4
Drop nyc-FO -> * R2 R1 chi Data Center Front Office R5 nyc Drop chi-FO -> * R3 R4 Packet filters have surprising consequences Consider a link failure chi-FO and nyc-FO still connected

42 Reachability Example R2 R1 chi Data Center Front Office R5 nyc R3 R4
Drop nyc-FO -> * R2 R1 chi Data Center Front Office R5 nyc Drop chi-FO -> * R3 R4 Network has less survivability than topology suggests chi-FO and nyc-FO still connected But packet filter means no data can flow! Probing the network won’t predict this problem

43 Allowing Packets from chi-FO to nyc-FO

44 Multiple Interacting Routing Processes
Client OSPF BGP FIB EBGP Policy1 Policy2 Internet Server Routes flow like water through the graph, gated by policy on the links

45 The Routing Instance Graph of a 881 Router Network

46 Reconvergence Time Under Single Link Failure

47 Reconvergence Time When Master DE Crashes

48 Reconvergence Time When Network Partitions

49 Reconvergence Time When Network Partitions

50 Many Implementations Possible
Single redundant decision engine Multiple decision engines Hot stand-by Divide network & load share Distributed decision engines Up to one per router Choice can be based on reliability requirements Dessim. Plane can be in-band, or leverage OOB links Less need for distributed solutions (harder to reason about) More focus on network issues, less on distributed protocols

51 Direct Expression Enables New Algorithms
OSPF normally calculates a single path to each destination D OSPF allows load-balancing only for equal-cost paths to avoid loops Using ECMP requires careful engineering of link weights D Decision Plane with network-wide view can compute multiple paths “Backup paths” installed for free! Bounded stretch, bounded fan-in

52 Systems of Systems Systems are designed as components to be used in larger systems in different contexts, for different purposes, interacting with different components Example: OSPF and BGP are complex systems in its own right, they are components in a routing system of a network, interacting with each other and packet filters, interacting with management tools … Complex configuration to enable flexibility The glue has tremendous impact on network performance State of art: multiple interactive distributed programs written in assembly language Lack of intellectual framework to understand global behavior

53 Supporting Network Evolution
Logic for controlling the network needs to change over time Traffic engineering rules Interactions with other networks Service characteristics Upgrades to field-deployed network equipment must be avoided Very high cost Software upgrades often require hardware upgrades (more CPU or memory)

54 Supporting Network Evolution Today
Today’s “Solution” Vendors stuff their routers with software implementing all possible “features” Multiple routing protocols Multiple signaling protocols (RSVP, CR-LDP) Each feature controlled by parameters set at configuration time to achieve late binding Feature-creep creates configuration nightmare Tremendous complexity for syntax & semantics Mis-interactions between features is common Our Goal: Separate decision making logic from the field-deployed devices

55 Supporting Network Expansion
Networks are constantly growing New routers/switches/links added Old equipment rarely removed Adding a new switch can cause old equipment to become overloaded CPU/Memory demands on each device should not scale up with network size

56 Supporting Network Expansion Today
Routers run a link-state routing protocol Size of link-state database scales with # of routers Expanding network can exceed memory limits of old routers Today’s “Solution” Monitor resources on all routers Predict approach of exhaustion and then: Global upgrade Rearchitecture of routing design to add summarization, route aggregation, information hiding Our Goal: make demands scale with hardware (e.g., # of interfaces)

57 Supporting Remote Devices
Maintaining communication with all network devices is critical for network management Diagnosis of problems Monitoring status and network health Updating configuration or software “the chicken or the egg….” Cannot send device configuration/management information until it can communicate Device cannot communicate until it is correctly configured

58 Supporting Remote Devices Today
Today’s “Solution” Use PSTN as management network of last resort Connect console of remote routers to phone modem Can’t be used for customer premise equipment (CPE): DSL/cable modems, integrated access devices (IADs) In a converged network, PSTN is decommissioned Our Goal: Preserve management communication to any device that is not physically partitioned, regardless of configuration state

59 Recent Publications G. Xie, J. Zhan, D. A. Maltz, H. Zhang, A. Greenberg, G. Hjalmtysson, J. Rexford, “On Static Reachability Analysis of IP Networks,” IEEE INFOCOM 2005, Orlando, FL, March 2005. J. Rexford, A. Greenberg, G. Hjalmtysson, D. A. Maltz, A. Myers, G. Xie, J. Zhan, H. Zhang, “Network-Wide Decision Making: Toward a Wafer-Thin Control Plane,” Proceedings of ACM HotNets-III, San Diego, CA, November 2004. D. A. Maltz, J. Zhan, G. Xie, G. Hjalmtysson, A. Greenberg, H. Zhang, “Routing Design in Operational Networks: A Look from the Inside,” Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (ACM SIGCOMM 2004), Portland, Oregon, 2004. D. A. Maltz, J. Zhan, G. Xie, H. Zhang, G. Hjalmtysson, A. Greenberg, J. Rexford, “Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data,” Proceedings of ACM/Usenix Internet Measurement Conference (IMC 2004), Sicily, Italy, 2004.


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