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1 Rethinking Network Control & Management The Case for a New 4D Architecture David A. Maltz Carnegie Mellon University/Microsoft Research Joint work with.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Rethinking Network Control & Management The Case for a New 4D Architecture David A. Maltz Carnegie Mellon University/Microsoft Research Joint work with."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Rethinking Network Control & Management The Case for a New 4D Architecture David A. Maltz Carnegie Mellon University/Microsoft Research Joint work with Albert Greenberg, Gisli Hjalmtysson Andy Myers, Jennifer Rexford, Geoffrey Xie, Hong Yan, Jibin Zhan, Hui Zhang

2 2 22 The Role of Network Control and Management Many different network environments Access, backbone networks Data-center networks, enterprise/campus Sizes: 10-10,000 routers/switches Many different technologies Longest-prefix routing (IP), fixed-width routing (Ethernet), label switching (MPLS, ATM), circuit switching (optical, TDM) Many different policies Routing, reachability, transit, traffic engineering, robustness The control plane software binds these elements together and defines the network

3 3 33 We Can Change the Control Plane! Pre-existing industry trend towards separating router hardware from software IETF: FORCES, GSMP, GMPLS SoftRouter [Lakshman, HotNets04] Incremental deployment path exists Individual networks can upgrade their control planes and gain benefits Small enterprise networks have most to gain No changes to end-systems required

4 4 44 A Clean-slate Design What are the fundamental causes of network problems? How to secure the network and protect the infrastructure? How to provide flexibility in defining management logic? What functionality needs to be distributed – what can be centralized? How to reduce/simplify the software in networks? What would a RISC router look like? How to leverage technology trends? CPU and link-speed growing faster than # of switches

5 5 55 Three Principles for Network Control & Management Network-level Objectives: Express goals explicitly Security policies, QoS, egress point selection Do not bury goals in box-specific configuration Management Logic Reachability matrix Traffic engineering rules

6 6 66 Three Principles for Network Control & Management Network-wide Views: Design network to provide timely, accurate info Topology, traffic, resource limitations Give logic the inputs it needs Management Logic Reachability matrix Traffic engineering rules Read state info

7 7 77 Three Principles for Network Control & Management Direct Control: Allow logic to directly set forwarding state FIB entries, packet filters, queuing parameters Logic computes desired network state, let it implement it Management Logic Reachability matrix Traffic engineering rules Read state info Write state

8 8 88 Overview of the 4D Architecture Decision Plane: All management logic implemented on centralized servers making all decisions Decision Elements use views to compute data plane state that meets objectives, then directly writes this state to routers Decision Dissemination Discovery Data Network-level objectives Direct control Network-wide views

9 9 99 Overview of the 4D Architecture Dissemination Plane: Provides a robust communication channel to each router – and robustness is the only goal! May run over same links as user data, but logically separate and independently controlled Decision Dissemination Discovery Data Network-level objectives Direct control Network-wide views

10 10 Overview of the 4D Architecture Discovery Plane: Each router discovers its own resources and its local environment E.g., the identity of its immediate neighbors Decision Dissemination Discovery Data Network-level objectives Direct control Network-wide views

11 11 Overview of the 4D Architecture Data Plane: Spatially distributed routers/switches Can deploy with todays technology Looking at ways to unify forwarding paradigms across technologies Decision Dissemination Discovery Data Network-level objectives Direct control Network-wide views

12 12 Concerns and Challenges Distributed Systems issues How will communication between routers and DEs survive failures in the network? Latency means DEs view of network is behind reality. Will the control loop be stable? What is the overhead to/from the DEs? What happens in a network partition? Networking issues Does the 4D simplify control and management? Can we create logic to meet multiple objectives?

13 13 The Feasibility of the 4D Architecture We designed and built a prototype of the 4D Architecture 4D Architecture permits many designs – prototype is a single, simple design point Decision plane Contains logic to simultaneously compute routes and enforce reachability matrix Multiple Decision Elements per network, using simple election protocol to pick master Dissemination plane Uses source routes to direct control messages Extremely simple, but can route around failed data links

14 14 Evaluation of the 4D Prototype Evaluated using Emulab (www.emulab.net)www.emulab.net Linux PCs used as routers (650 – 800MHz) Tested on 9 enterprise network topologies (10-100 routers each) Example network with 49 switches and 5 DEs

15 15 Performance of the 4D Prototype Trivial prototype has performance comparable to well- tuned production networks Recovers from single link failure in < 300 ms < 1 s response considered excellent Faster forwarding reconvergence possible Survives failure of master Decision Element New DE takes control within 1 s No disruption unless second fault occurs Gracefully handles complete network partitions Less than 1.5 s of outage

16 16 Fundamental Problem: Wrong Abstractions Management Plane Figure out what is happening in network Decide how to change it Shell scriptsTraffic Eng Databases Planning tools OSPF SNMP netflowmodems Configs OSPF BGP Link metrics OSPF BGP OSPF BGP Control Plane Multiple routing processes on each router Each router with different configuration program Huge number of control knobs: metrics, ACLs, policy FIB Routing policies Packet filters Data Plane Distributed routers Forwarding, filtering, queueing Based on FIB or labels

17 17 Good Abstractions Reduce Complexity All decision making logic lifted out of control plane Eliminates duplicate logic in management plane Dissemination plane provides robust communication to/from data plane switches Management Plane Control Plane Data Plane Decision Plane Dissemination Data Plane Configs FIBs, ACLs

18 18 Today: Simple Things are Hard to Do D Access Networks Inter-POP Links

19 19 Fundamental Problem: Configurations Allow Too Many Degrees of Freedom Computing configuration files that cause control plane to compute desired forwarding states is intractable NP-hard in many cases Requires predictive model of control plane behavior Configurations files form a program that defines a set of forwarding states Very hard to create program that permits only desired states, and doesnt transit through bad ones Forwarding states allowed by configs Auto-adaptation leads to/thru bad states Direct Control avoids bad states

20 20 Fundamental Problem: Conflation of Issues Ideal case: all routing information flooded to all routers inside network Robustness achieved via flooding Reality: routing information filtered and aggregated extensively Route filtering used to implement security and resource policies Route aggregation used to achieve scalability

21 21 4D Separates Distributed Computing Issues from Networking Issues Distributed computing issues ! protocols and network architecture Overhead Resiliency Scalability Networking issues ! management logic Traffic engineering and service provisioning Egress point selection Reachability control (VPNs) Precomputation of backup paths

22 22 Future Work Scalability Evaluate over 1-10K switches, 10-100K routes Networks with backbone-like propagation delays Structuring decision logic Arbitrate among multiple, potentially competing objectives Unify control when some logic takes longer than others Protocol improvements Better dissemination and discovery planes Deployment in todays networks Data center, enterprise, campus, backbone (RCP)

23 23 Future Work Experiment with network appliances Traffic shapers, traffic scrubbers Expand relationships with security Using 4D as mechanism for monitoring/quarantine Formulate models that establish bounds of 4D Scale, latency, stability, failure models, objectives Generate evidence to support/refute principles

24 24 Questions?

25 25 Direct Control Provides Complete Control Zero device-specific configuration Supports many models for pushing routes Trivial push – convergence requires time for all updates to be receive and applied – same as today Synchronized update – updates propagated, but not applied till agreed time in the future – clock skew defines convergence time Controlled state trajectory – DE serializes updates to avoid all incorrect transient states

26 26 Fundamental Problem: Wrong Abstractions interface Ethernet0 ip address 6.2.5.14 255.255.255.128 interface Serial1/0.5 point-to-point ip address 6.2.2.85 255.255.255.252 ip access-group 143 in frame-relay interface-dlci 28 router ospf 64 redistribute connected subnets redistribute bgp 64780 metric 1 subnets network 66.251.75.128 0.0.0.127 area 0 router bgp 64780 redistribute ospf 64 match route-map 8aTzlvBrbaW neighbor 66.253.160.68 remote-as 12762 neighbor 66.253.160.68 distribute-list 4 in access-list 143 deny 1.1.0.0/16 access-list 143 permit any route-map 8aTzlvBrbaW deny 10 match ip address 4 route-map 8aTzlvBrbaW permit 20 match ip address 7 ip route 10.2.2.1/16 10.2.1.7

27 27 Fundamental Problem: Wrong Abstractions Router ID (sorted by file size) 8810 Lines in config file 2000 1000 0 Size of configuration files in a single enterprise network (881 routers)

28 28

29 29

30 30 Fundamental Problem: Conflating Distributed Systems Issues with Networking Issues Distributed Systems Concern: resiliency to link failures Solution: multiple paths through routing process graph D D left Routing Process D left Routing Process D left Routing Process D D D

31 31 Distributed Systems Concern: resiliency to link failures Solution: multiple paths through routing process graph D right Routing Process D left Routing Process D left Routing Process D D D Fundamental Problem: Conflating Distributed Systems Issues with Networking Issues

32 32 Fundamental Problem: Conflating Distributed Systems Issues with Networking Issues Networking Concern: implement resource or security policy Solution: restrict flow of routing information, filter routes, summarize/aggregate routes D D left Routing Process D left Routing Process D left Routing Process D D D Filter routes to D

33 33 4D Supports Network Evolution & Expansion Decision logic can be upgraded as needed No need for update of distributed protocols implemented in software distributed on every switch Decision Elements can be upgraded as needed Network expansion requires upgrades only to DEs, not every switch

34 34 Reachability Example Two locations, each with data center & front office All routers exchange routes over all links R1R2 R5 R4R3 Chicago (chi) New York (nyc) Data CenterFront Office

35 35 Reachability Example R1R2 R5 R4R3 Chicago (chi) New York (nyc) Data Center chi-DC chi-FO nyc-DC nyc-FO chi-DCchi-FOnyc-DCnyc-FO Front Office

36 36 Reachability Example R1R2 R5 R4R3 Data Center chi-DC chi-FO nyc-DC nyc-FO chi-DCchi-FOnyc-DCnyc-FO Packet filter: Drop nyc-FO -> * Permit * Packet filter: Drop chi-FO -> * Permit * Front Office chi nyc

37 37 Reachability Example A new short-cut link added between data centers Intended for backup traffic between centers R1R2 R5 R4R3 Data Center Packet filter: Drop nyc-FO -> * Permit * Packet filter: Drop chi-FO -> * Permit * Front Office chi nyc

38 38 Reachability Example Oops – new link lets packets violate security policy! Routing changed, but Packet filters dont update automatically R1R2 R5 R4R3 Data Center Packet filter: Drop nyc-FO -> * Permit * Packet filter: Drop chi-FO -> * Permit * Front Office chi nyc

39 39 Prohibiting Packets from chi-FO to nyc-DC

40 40 Reachability Example Typical response – add more packet filters to plug the holes in security policy R1 R2 R5 R4R3 Data CenterFront Office chi nyc Packet filter: Drop nyc-FO -> * Permit * Packet filter: Drop chi-FO -> * Permit *

41 41 Reachability Example Packet filters have surprising consequences Consider a link failure chi-FO and nyc-FO still connected R1 R2 R5 R4R3 Data Center Drop nyc-FO -> * Front Office chi nyc Drop chi-FO -> *

42 42 Reachability Example Network has less survivability than topology suggests chi-FO and nyc-FO still connected But packet filter means no data can flow! Probing the network wont predict this problem R1 R2 R5 R4R3 Data Center Drop nyc-FO -> * Front Office chi nyc Drop chi-FO -> *

43 43 Allowing Packets from chi-FO to nyc-FO

44 44 Multiple Interacting Routing Processes OSPFBGPOSPF FIB OSPF FIB OSPF FIB OSPF FIB OSPF EBGP Policy1Policy2 Internet Client Server

45 45 The Routing Instance Graph of a 881 Router Network

46 46 Reconvergence Time Under Single Link Failure

47 47 Reconvergence Time When Master DE Crashes

48 48 Reconvergence Time When Network Partitions

49 49 Reconvergence Time When Network Partitions

50 50 Many Implementations Possible Multiple decision engines Hot stand-by Divide network & load share Distributed decision engines Up to one per router Choice can be based on reliability requirements Dessim. Plane can be in-band, or leverage OOB links Less need for distributed solutions (harder to reason about) More focus on network issues, less on distributed protocols Single redundant decision engine

51 51 Direct Expression Enables New Algorithms OSPF normally calculates a single path to each destination D OSPF allows load-balancing only for equal-cost paths to avoid loops Using ECMP requires careful engineering of link weights D D Decision Plane with network-wide view can compute multiple paths Backup paths installed for free! Bounded stretch, bounded fan-in

52 52 Systems of Systems Systems are designed as components to be used in larger systems in different contexts, for different purposes, interacting with different components Example: OSPF and BGP are complex systems in its own right, they are components in a routing system of a network, interacting with each other and packet filters, interacting with management tools … Complex configuration to enable flexibility The glue has tremendous impact on network performance State of art: multiple interactive distributed programs written in assembly language Lack of intellectual framework to understand global behavior

53 53 Supporting Network Evolution Logic for controlling the network needs to change over time Traffic engineering rules Interactions with other networks Service characteristics Upgrades to field-deployed network equipment must be avoided Very high cost Software upgrades often require hardware upgrades (more CPU or memory)

54 54 Supporting Network Evolution Today Todays Solution Vendors stuff their routers with software implementing all possible features –Multiple routing protocols –Multiple signaling protocols (RSVP, CR-LDP) –Each feature controlled by parameters set at configuration time to achieve late binding Feature-creep creates configuration nightmare –Tremendous complexity for syntax & semantics –Mis-interactions between features is common Our Goal: Separate decision making logic from the field- deployed devices

55 55 Supporting Network Expansion Networks are constantly growing New routers/switches/links added Old equipment rarely removed Adding a new switch can cause old equipment to become overloaded CPU/Memory demands on each device should not scale up with network size

56 56 Supporting Network Expansion Today Routers run a link-state routing protocol Size of link-state database scales with # of routers Expanding network can exceed memory limits of old routers Todays Solution Monitor resources on all routers Predict approach of exhaustion and then: –Global upgrade –Rearchitecture of routing design to add summarization, route aggregation, information hiding Our Goal: make demands scale with hardware (e.g., # of interfaces)

57 57 Supporting Remote Devices Maintaining communication with all network devices is critical for network management Diagnosis of problems Monitoring status and network health Updating configuration or software the chicken or the egg…. Cannot send device configuration/management information until it can communicate Device cannot communicate until it is correctly configured

58 58 Supporting Remote Devices Today Todays Solution Use PSTN as management network of last resort Connect console of remote routers to phone modem Cant be used for customer premise equipment (CPE): DSL/cable modems, integrated access devices (IADs) In a converged network, PSTN is decommissioned Our Goal: Preserve management communication to any device that is not physically partitioned, regardless of configuration state

59 59 Recent Publications G. Xie, J. Zhan, D. A. Maltz, H. Zhang, A. Greenberg, G. Hjalmtysson, J. Rexford, On Static Reachability Analysis of IP Networks, IEEE INFOCOM 2005, Orlando, FL, March 2005. J. Rexford, A. Greenberg, G. Hjalmtysson, D. A. Maltz, A. Myers, G. Xie, J. Zhan, H. Zhang, Network-Wide Decision Making: Toward a Wafer-Thin Control Plane, Proceedings of ACM HotNets-III, San Diego, CA, November 2004. D. A. Maltz, J. Zhan, G. Xie, G. Hjalmtysson, A. Greenberg, H. Zhang, Routing Design in Operational Networks: A Look from the Inside, Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (ACM SIGCOMM 2004), Portland, Oregon, 2004. D. A. Maltz, J. Zhan, G. Xie, H. Zhang, G. Hjalmtysson, A. Greenberg, J. Rexford,Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data, Proceedings of ACM/Usenix Internet Measurement Conference (IMC 2004), Sicily, Italy, 2004.


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