Telework Telepresence for the Teleworkplace: Living-in versus visiting Cyberspace… Making Telepresence a Reality Gordon Bell (email@example.com) Bay Area Research Center Microsoft Research http://www.research.microsoft.com/users/gbell
Therapy from long distance debated - SJ Mercury 5 April 1998 http://www.sjmercury.com/breaking/headline1/056580.htm
Telework In Silicon Valley, the Internet is all we think about. Is it just greed??? The internet has created (redistributing) more wealth than any other phenomena. $200 B valuation; $2 B sales; -$0.2M return. WWW is grossly over-hyped! Long run, the hype is likely to be justified. USA is <5% of the world population. Silicon Valley is <0.01% of this population. More people learning English in China than speak it in the rest of the world
Some tele-tales Telepresence (comoho*) Telelearning Teleconferencing Telemeetings presence Telepresentations Telecollaboration THE WORK: Telework & work Tele-x e.g. telemedicine, Distributed design Administrivia Intrastructure & support CyberAll encoding everybit Millibill: Tele-art, rides, performance, interactive television??? Paperlessness audio eye-tracking gaze avatars Multi-media Media Machine *Commercial, mobile and home office
Telework email Formal presentations sans video... Voice & Videomail Video lectures & courses ICQ, Internet phone & phone conf. RealAudio & simple graphics Workspace for remote program control Whiteboard (groups)... Videophone Remote Rover (Robot Videophone) person-computer 1:1 personal communication 2 site-site conferencing; n site conferencing 1:p broadcasts computer management distributed groups with >2, 10, <100, view (troll) hallways with informal interaction 1: 1 videophone calls for (problem solving, authoring) interviews classes formal meetings (lectures, conferences, stockholder meetings, town halls, etc..) Mechanisms (how) Synchronous Asynchronous Group Interaction (Who) Type of Work (What) The Space of Telepresence for work Profession
Telework In a decade we can/will have: More powerful personal computers – processing 10-100x – 4x resolution (2K x 2K); – Very large displays… everywhere… to be ever anywhere telepresent – storage of one terabyte Additional small e.g. palm, camera, watch platforms to hold a plethora of evolving software adequate networking???? – ubiquitous access = todays fast LANs – Mobility according to standards and plans One chip, networked platforms including light bulbs, cameras everywhere, etc. more cyberization… the challenge… interfacing platforms and people.
Telework 0 0.2 0.4 0.8 2.0 199719981999200020012002 Circuit data <9.6kbps HSCSD 57.6kbps GPRS 115kbps EDGE 384kbps UMTS 2Mbps 0.1 The evolution of wireless data standards
Telework Telepresentations: The 2nd killer app?
Telework Telepresentations Being There (e.g. meeting, lecture, confererene) Without Really Being There (or Then) n Presenter or audience need not be physically present n Reach a wider audience u I have a schedule conflict. u Anybody with a web connection can participate n Reduce costs u No need to travel to attend or participate in a presentation u Education & training, corporate communication
Motivation: Telepresentations Presenter and/or audience telepresent NOT: meeting or collaboration settings Forget the nasty social issues! Mostly one-way
Telework Telepresentation Elements è Slides è Audio Video Script, text comments, hyperlinks, etc.
Telework Telepresentations: The Essentials Slide and audio a must Add some video (low quality) to make us feel good Storage and transmission costs low
Telework Telepresentations: The Killer App Increased attendance & lower travel costs Practical and low-cost NOW e.g. ACM97 - 2,000 visitors in real space, 20,000 visitors on Internet http://research.microsoft.com/acm97
Telework This talk Would you like to pause, rewind, browse? Do you wish you could have seen this – At home? – At another time? How much does a present speaker add? How much would you pay for real presence?
A word about storage… CDs hold 4 near VHS quality videos (300 Kbps)
Telework Telepresentation Features Essential – High quality audio and Graphics aka slides Important – Some essence of the presenter - even a few still images Non-Essential – Video of the presenter – Two-way communication
Telework Telepresentations will be a well-defined app by 2001. ACM97 was the first telepresented conference with Mbone multicast & servers that host the conference cf. http://www.research.microsoft.com/acm97 Bet: More people will view the conference from Cyberspace than that attended it. Big question: will telepresentation technology AKA tele-learning affect learning and education?
Telework Telecollaboration… The next killer tele-app?? Or just a tremendous challenge interacting to achieve a common objective … basically, its communications enabling or disabling people
Telework Perspective Dont believe in collaboration as much as just plain communication. The next killer app is tele-meetings AKA videoconferencing Interested in desktop 1:1 up to 1:6 (larger numbers turns into presentations with floor control)
Telework By April 1, 2001 videophones will ship in 50% of the PCs and be in use. Gordon Bell vs Jim Gray 1996 (one paper, loser gets fed)
Telework Conference Rooms with Teleconferencing
Tools for telecollaboration MOOs and MUDs; Comic Chat, VWorlds Powerpoint: conference & record, Precept: mbone multicasting & UNIX toolset NetShow: Live & On demand video 28.8 - 300 K ICQ -- serendipity & instant communication CuSeeMe: audio, video, whiteboard NetMeeting: audio, 2 way video, chat, whiteboard, program sharing Placeware for large scale meetings, presentations, and collaborations Latitude MeetingPlace phone & data conference Active Touch web phone & data conference
Telework Telecollaboration Low latency, high bandwidth for interactivity, feeling, nuances Channels: – speech (including spatialization) – the work I.e. document, diagram, program, presentation, etc. – video output: forces attendance and holds attention – video input: state of the receiver cues – whiteboard – chat channels
Telework Telework: It takes screens, sound, and bandwidth, stupidhttp://research.microsoft.com/barc/GBell/
Telework Limits of Computer Supported Collaborative Work -- CSCW We dont understand collaboration We do it for limited domains e.g. chip design, some software, 777s if task is partitionable One person has the mouse problem Camera is important NOT for communication, but and to keep & force (hold) attention plus communicating a few cues (did they get it), Parallel processing & single threading of tasks… a better model of the problem Limited task parallelism e.g. presentations Brooks Law matters!
Telework How to Fail at Videoconferencing Lack of ubiquity: it must obey Metcalfes Law Call set up: hard, time-consuming, requires training Small screens, lack of spatiality, destroy visual cues No gaze awareness, limit screen area; only 2-D figures or avatars Audio: high latency and poor quality Fail to overcome the adequacy of the phone: ubiquitous, no manuals or training, low latency, ok audio. The targets: audio quality, 3-D in every sense, and gaze awareness
Telework Four steps to video-telephony enabling telemeetings Very low cost IP telephony becomes ubiquitous Evolve audio to provide spatial awareness aka stereo, quad, etc. Make recording easy to do that will enable meeting persistence and minutes Add multi-party
Telework Gaze-corrected Videoconferencing Jim Gemmell Microsoft Bay Area Research Center
Telework Videoconferencing: not looking into the camera
Telework Not looking at camera: never eye contact
Telework Looking into the camera: always eye-contact
Telework Head adjustment inspiriation: Moving Mona
Telework More eye contact gets you: More job offers from interviews More help when you ask for it More powers of pursuasion Make you seem more: friendly, self-confident, natural, mature, sincere
Telework Perceiving gaze People dont stare at a fixed point: series of 1/3 sec glances Eye contact: really look all around face, esp. eyes and mouth. Eye contact is anything around the face. Mostly determined from eyes/nose
Telework Outline Telepresence and Telework – Teleworking environment – Overhead: Support & Administrivia – The work Telepresence dimensions Telepresentations: the 2nd killer app! Telecollaboration: killer app to come? The work Is it for everyone?
Telework What is Telepresence? Injecting your presence Being immersed in the tele-space Being there without really being there or then into tele-space
Telework Telepresence Components Video Audio Slides, images, web pages Text chat Shared applications Whiteboards Voting, question taking
Telework Time-shifting beats Space-shifting Gets around scheduling problems – Worlds time zones! Time-shifting requires STORAGE !!! Lets me pause, rewind, browse, play at faster speeds Immortality
Telework Todays killer app : Telepresentations Presenter and/or audience telepresent Practical and low cost now One-way mostly – Not meeting or collaboration settings – forget the network latencies and messy social issues Slides and audio get you 99% and are bandwidth cheap
Telework Next killer app: distributed telemeetings? Compete with the phone: – Cheaper long distance rates – Higher audio quality - e.g. surround sound Why not record everything too ? Features: – multi-party with rendezvous setup – Not just audio: - shared documents, applications, video, etc
Telework Telework = (cyber) work + telepresence … being there while being here, and at some other time. Goal: teleoffice/teleworkplace = workplace office The teleworkplace is ideally just a remote office W/O – Communication, computer, and network support! – Team interactions for work! CSCW is a rat hole! – Interaction at coffee, meeting rooms, … in offices – Administrative support for phones, information (especially paper) management, keeping track of Always on & always connected to intranet/intranet...! Telecommunication aka phone & email -- the first, killer apps Telepresentations -- the 2nd killer app Tele-collaboration -- the killer app to come
Telework Telework & communications dimensions Who and how many are interacting? What is the nature of the interaction? Which professions? Mechanisms: How are they interacting?
Telework Telepresence: who and what WHO 1:1 person-person communication n:m 2-site-site video conference 1:n-site broadcasting or Mbone narrowcasting distributed group. >2 - 5 - 10 - 100 ---- person-computer computer management (no persons) What view (troll) hallways, seeking interaction 1:1 interview, status report, etc. 1-6 videophone calls for (design, problem solving, authoring) hold staff meetings with 1 or more members distributed attend classes formal meetings (lectures, conferences, stockholder meetings, town halls, etc..)
Telework Synchronous Internet phone & phone conferencing Internet Videophone RealAudio & Overhead graphics Shared applications Whiteboards CU SeeMe on POTS… IP Videophone Mbone Video conferencing Room Video conferencing Remote Rover (Robot Videophone) Asynchronous voice mail…STT email... TTS Home pages replace bulletin boards, file transport, and document distribution Schedule & Notes Voice and Video email Telepresentations (meetings, presentations, & courses) Telepresence Mechanisms ( for Work)
Telework Voice and Visual Alternatives (in order of increasing B/W) Voice* TTS (synthetic or speaker driven) 4 Kb-64 Kb codec of real voice Stereo of real voice Stereo with sound source identification Projection into arbitrary virtual world environment *variable speed Visual AKA Video* Text avatar (simple… photo) Avatar with voice sync Avatar of real person Video codec based projection – Postage stamp … POTS – Mailing label … ISDN or 2x POTS – Compressed VHS (200 Kbps) – MPEG 2 (1- 4 Mbps) Speaker tracking, 1-n cameras VR image of a large space 3d images holodeck Animatron e.g. Barney Mobile Animatron *Meeting in real or virtual world
Telework Active Touch Live Collaboration Architecture Data Collaboration Server Data Collaboration Server Data Collaboration Server CTI Server CTI Server CollaborationClusteringServerCollaborationClusteringServer
Telework Active Touch Data Collaboration Services Web Server Multipoint Comm. Service Chat Presentation Doc Review Web Tour Interactive Forms Application Viewing Application Sharing Launch NetMeeting Desktop Sharing Conf. Control TCP/IP HTTP To CTI Servers DataCollaborationServerDataCollaborationServer
Telework Active Touch Administration and Enterprise Integration Directory Service Module Billing & Accounting Database Active Directory Service (LDAP) Object Storage Enterprise Data Repository Security Module Archive Module Public Key Infrastructure Database Third Party Repository Admin and EI
Telework Collaboration Application Server: Criteria Robust, scalable Data & Telephony Tight Integration Web Integration Easy-To-Use Security Open Standards (HTTP, TSAPI, LDAP, T.120, Encryption) Enterprise Application Integration Performance High Availability Customizable
Telework Alternative Computing Futures Photos courtesy of Microsoft Cinemania Forbidden Planet (1956) Metropolis (1926) 2001 (1968)
Telework Problems: socio vs technical Isolation & loneliness – need for communication/stimulation – chance meetings -- serendipity of ideas – loss of group/teamwork skills – danger of becoming terminal interruptions & focus lack of support staff to help, answer ?s supervision and ability to have 1:1 unclear that many people want it… they simply need the contact with people
Telework Good News Bandwidth will come Audio and video compression is improving to live within POTS limit Videophones will be built-into all PCs within 5 years at 0 cost Telepresentations are here for live and on demand use This will change education! Telecollaboration tools work for simple apps… and will improve
Telework Telepresence: 5, 10, … 50 year goals hold a meeting of type, m university or technical course interview, staff meeting, co-ordination, board meeting, annual meeting, town hall, with p, distributed persons with as much interactivity, I, and feeling, f such that people prefer being telepresent; and meetings are provably more productive meetings will evolve to be asynchronous versus traditional synchronous enabling full time- shifting so that people can be in two places at the same time