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Ch. 14 Acids & Bases
What's An Acid? An acid is any substance that increases the H+ ion concentration in water. This causes the pH to drop They taste sour. They react with metals to make H2 gas These are all the same thing: H+ H3O+ proton
The Six Strong Acids Dissociate completely in H2OHCl H+ + Cl- (HCl is an Acid) Ex: HCl – Hydrochloric Acid HBr – Hydrobromic Acid HI – Hydriodic Acid H2SO4 – Sulfuric Acid HNO3 – Nitric Acid HClO4 – Perchloric Acid
Be Careful with Strong Acids
Weak Acids These don’t completely dissociate in water.Here is acetic acid, the one in vinegar: HC2H3O2(aq) H+ (aq) + C2H3O2-(aq) about 99% about 1%
Some Strong and Weak Acids
What’s a Base? Any substance that makes lots of hydroxide ions, OH-, in water. They decrease the H+ ion concentration in water and increase the pH. They taste bitter (ie: soap) and feel slippery
Strong Bases They completely dissociate in water:NaOH Na+ + OH- NaOH – Sodium Hydroxide KOH – Potassium Hydroxide LiOH – Lithium Hydroxide Ba(OH)2 – Barium Hydroxide
Be Careful with Strong Bases
Weak Bases Don’t completely dissociate in water.Only about 1% to 5% is dissociated. Here is ammonia, a weak base: NH3 + H2O NH OH-
Acids & Bases
Acid-Base DefinitionsType Acid Base Arrhenius H+ or H3O+ Producer OH- Producer Bronsted-Lowery Proton (H+) Donor Proton (H+) Acceptor Lewis Electron-Pair Acceptor Electron-Pair Donor
Acid Neutral Base
Neutralization ReactionsThis is when you mix an acid with a base. The result is always the same: Acid + Base Water + a Salt The salt can be any number of ionic salts, not just NaCl.
Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide. Write the reaction:HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl
Another of Neutralization:Sulfuric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide. Write and balance the reaction. H2SO4 + 2KOH 2H2O + K2SO4
A Break & a Challenge: Say the color, not the word.
General Properties Indicators Neutralization Reactions
Intro to Acids & Bases General Properties Indicators Neutralization Reactions.
Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 2006, Prentice hall.
UNIT 5 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Acid-Base Neutralization.
Acid-Base Reactions. Definitions Strong Acids HCl HBr HI HNO 3 HClO 4 H 2 SO 4 Acid: a species that supplies H + ions to water Strong acid:
Acid Anything that increases the hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) concentration.
Precipitation reaction – reaction in which an insoluble product forms Precipitate – an insoluble solid that separates from the solution Solubility – maximum.
Modern Theories of Acids & Bases The Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry Theories.
Acids and Bases Chapter 19. Ions in Solution Aqueous solutions contain H + ions and OH - ions If a solution has more H + ions than OH - ions it is.
Acid and Base Reactions Chapter 4. Acids: Substances that increase the concentration of H + when dissolved in water (Arrhenius). Proton donors (Brønsted–Lowry).
I. Introduction to Acids & Bases Acids & Bases. A. Properties electrolytes turn litmus red sour taste react with metals to form H 2 gas slippery.
Acids and Bases. Acids: Compounds that dissociate (give off) one or more hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water (proton donors) Bases: Compounds that.
Acids and Bases Chapter 15.
pH less than 7 Neutralizes bases Forms H + ions in solution Corrosive-reacts with most metals to form hydrogen gas Good conductors of electricity.
Acids & Bases Acids Arrhenius Model Produce hydrogen ions aqueous solution. HCl H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Acids you SHOULD know: Acids you SHOULD know:
Acids and Bases
1A + 1B 1C + 1D Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of each species when 150 ml 2.0 M A is mixed with ml 2.0 M B. K c = 0.25.
1 Some Properties of Acids þ Produce H + (as H 3 O + ) ions in water (the hydronium ion is a hydrogen ion attached to a water molecule) þ Taste sour þ.
Acids, Bases, and Salts Chapter Acids – Taste sour – React with metals to form H 2 gas – Will change the color of and acid-base indicator Turns.
Acid/Base Neurtalization. Acid-Base Reactions Acid – substance that increases the H + concentration in aqueous solutions HCl → H + + Cl - H 2 SO 4 → H.
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