2 Should the use of coal in America be expanded? YesNo
3 Formed from ancient plants. Coal beds were prehistoric swamps. Can be considered to be “stored” solar energy.Photosynthesis:CO2 + H20 + solar energy carbohydrates + O2We can also run the process backwards and burn carbs to get energy, water and carbondioxide.
4 Normally when a plant dies it decomposes. If there is not enough Oxygen, it can’t completely decompose, thus we get a slow accumulation of energy.In a swamp, the bacteria that decompose the plants also use up the Oxygen.Coal found today formed between 1 and 440 million years ago.
5 Steps to becoming coal: PeatLigniteSubbituminousBituminousAnthraciteThe major difference is the percentage of the coal that is Carbon. Higher Carbon concentration means better quality coal. (in general)
7 Coal progresses through the stages with increase pressure and temperature. Type% CarbonEnergy Content (Btu/lb)Lignite30Subbituminous40Bituminous50-70Anthracite9014000
8 The largest amount of US coal is Bituminous. Approximately 1% is Anthracite. (Found in Pennsylvania.)Many coal veins have a high sulfur content.Significant contributor to acid rain.S+O2SO2SO2 combines with water in atmosphere to form sulfuric acid.Limits the use of those coals (some progress is being made in technology to use high sulfur coal)
9 Coal Mining Coal veins can be 1in to 400 ft thick. Must be at least 2 ft thick to make mining profitable.Two basic ways to get to itTunnels (deep reserves) (40%)Strip mining (near surface) (60%)
21 A thick shroud of haze lingers over China, turning the sky an opaque grey. Beijing, China's capital, is situated under the densest portion of the smog layer. The aerosol pollution can be seen blowing eastward across the Bo Hai Bay and Yellow Sea reaching as far as North and South Korea and the islands of Japan. (NASA)
29 Estimated that we have enough reserves for 200-300 years at current production rates. Use may be expandedReplace aging oil/natural gas/nuclear electric plantsMore demand for electrical energyAlternative uses such as coal gasification.
30 Coal GasificationCoal gasification can be used to produce syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) gas. This syngas can then be converted into transportation fuels like gasoline and diesel. Alternatively, the hydrogen obtained from gasification can be used for various purposes such as powering a hydrogen economy, making ammonia, or upgrading fossil fuels.
31 Adverse Effects of Coal Millions of tons of waste productsAcid rain from high sulfur coalInterference with groundwaterImpact of water use on flows of rivers and consequential impact on other land-usesCoal-fired power plants without effective fly ash capture are one of the largest sources of human-caused background radiation exposureCoal-fired power plants shorten nearly 24,000 lives a year in the United States, including 2,800 from lung cancerCoal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of CO2 in the air
32 Should the use of coal in America be expanded? YesNo