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Chapter 3: Acids, Bases, & Solutions solution- a mixture containing a solvent and at least 1 solute and has the same properties throughout. solvent- the part of a solution that is present in the largest amount and dissolves the solute(s). solute- the part of a solution that is present in a lesser amount and is dissolved by the solvent.
SolutionSolventSolute kool-adewatersugar, artificial flavoring, food coloring Examples of Solutions sea waterwatersalt, other compounds dental fillingsmercurysilver antifreezewaterethylene glycol stainless steeliron chromium, nickel, carbon
Dissolving a solute into a solvent will: 1) raise the boiling point. 2) lower the melting point.
Acids & Bases acid- a compound that when mixed with water forms hydronium ions (H 3 O + ). H 3 O + hydronium ion Cl- H Cl HOH + + +
Properties of Acids: 1) taste sour (DON’T TRY IT!!) 2) reacts with metals to form hydrogen gas (H 2 ) 3) reacts with carbonates to form CO 2 4) turns blue litmus paper red Common Acids hydrochloric acid (HCl) nitric acid (HNO 3 ) phosphouric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) 5) has a pH range between 0 – 6.9
base- a compound that when mixed with water creates hydroxide ions (OH - ) KOH HOH + - hydroxide ions
Properties of Bases 1) tastes bitter (DON’T TRY IT!!) 2) feels slippery to the touch (DON’T TRY IT!!) 3) turns red litmus paper blue 4) has a pH range of 7.1 - 14 Common Bases sodium hydroxide (NaOH) calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) potassium hydroxide (KOH) aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ) ammonia (NH 3 ) calcium oxide (CaO)
pH scale A scale that indicates the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution. 0147 wateracidsbases neutral acidic alkaline
When an acid reacts with a base, the products are a salt and water. (a.k.a. “neutralization”) NaOH HCl +NaOH Cl+H 2KOH + H 2 SO 4 K 2 SO 4 + 2HOH 3Ca(OH) 2 + 2H 3 PO 4 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 6HOH
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