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Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies The Animal Body and How It Moves Chapter 22 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies.

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Presentation on theme: "Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies The Animal Body and How It Moves Chapter 22 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies The Animal Body and How It Moves Chapter 22 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display

2 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Outline Animal Body Plan Vertebrate Body Organization Vertebrate Organ Systems Epithelium Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Nerve Tissue Skeletal System Bones and Muscles

3 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Radial Versus Bilateral Symmetry Radial Symmetry - body parts are arranged around a central axis. Bilateral Symmetry - body has a right and left half that are mirror images of each other. Allows different organs to be located in different parts of the body. Allows for more efficient movement. Allows for cephalization - evolution of definite head and brain area.

4 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Body Cavity Versus No Cavity Presence of body cavity allows dramatic expansion of portions of digestive tract. Allows for more storage and time for enzymatic activity for enhanced digestion. - Allows animals to eat more during safe periods. Allows space for gonad expansion. - Diverse breeding strategies.

5 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Body Cavity Versus No Cavity Kinds of Body Cavities Acoleomates - No body cavity. Pseudocoelomate - Body cavity located between endoderm and mesoderm. Coelomates - Body cavity forms entirely within mesoderm.

6 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Nonsegmented Versus Segmented Bodies Advantages of early embryonic segmentation: Each segment may develop a more or less complete set of adult organ systems. Locomotion is more effective because of increased flexibility.

7 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Protostomes Versus Deuterstomes Deuterstomes evolved from protostomes more than 630 mya. Differ fundamentally in three aspects of embryonic growth. Cleavage Blastophore determination of body axis Developmental fate of embryo

8 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Vertebrate Body Organization General Architecture Food flows from in tube from mouth to anus. - Suspended in coelom, divided into: Thoracic cavity (heart and lungs) Abdominal cavity (stomach intestines) - Supported by skeleton made up of jointed bones. - Skull protects brain. - Vertebral column protects spinal cord.

9 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Vertebrate Body Organization Tissues Cells of same type organized into tissues. Three fundamental layers - Endoderm - Mesoderm - Ectoderm

10 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Vertebrate Body Organization Adult tissues grouped into four general classes: Epithelial Connective Muscle Nerve

11 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Vertebrate Body Organization Organs Body structures composed of several different tissues grouped together into a larger structural and functional unit. Organ Systems Group of organs that work together to carry out important function.

12 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Vertebrate Organ Systems Skeletal Bones, Skull, Cartilage, Ligaments Circulatory Heart, Blood Vessels, Blood Endocrine Pituitary, Adrenal, Thyroid Glands Nervous Nerves, Brain, Spinal Cord

13 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Vertebrate Organ Systems Respiratory Lungs, Trachea Immune Lymphocytes, Macrophages, Antibodies Digestive Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Intestines, Liver, Pancreas Urinary Kidneys, Bladder

14 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Vertebrate Organ Systems Muscular Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle Reproductive Testes, Ovaries Integumentary Skin, Hair, Nails, Sweat Glands

15 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Epithelium Outside of body covered with cells developed from embryonic ectoderm tissue. Body cavity lined with cells developed from embryonic mesoderm tissue. Hollow inner core of digestive tract lined with cells developed from embryonic endoderm tissue. Collectively termed epithelium.

16 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Epithelium Epithelium Functions: Protect tissues from dehydration and mechanical damage. Provide sensory surfaces. Secrete materials. Types of Epithelial Cells: Squamous Cubodial Columnar

17 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Epithelium Three general kinds of Epithelial Tissue: Simple Epithelium - Single cell layer thick - lining lungs and major body cavities. Stratified Epithelium - Complex layer of cells - skin. Glands - Secretion

18 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Connective Tissue Connective tissue cells fall into three functional categories: Immune System - Defense Skeletal System - Support Blood and Fat - Storage and Distribution Immune System Macrophages - Engulf and digest invaders. Lymphocytes - Produce antibodies and attack virus-infected cells.

19 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Connective Tissue Skeletal Connective Tissue Fibroblasts - Secrete structurally strong proteins into spaces between cells. Cartilage - Collagen matrix forms long parallel arrays along lines of stress. Bone - Collagen fibers coated with calcium phosphate.

20 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Connective Tissue Storage and Transport Connective Tissues Adipose Tissue - Fat accumulating cells. Erthrocytes - Red blood cells that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. - Move in plasma.

21 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Muscle Tissue Distinguishing characteristics of muscle cells is abundance of contractible protein fibers (Microfilaments). Shortening of fibers produces considerable force. Kinds of Muscle Cells Smooth - Microfilament loosely organized. Skeletal and Cardiac - Microfilaments bunched into myofibrils (Striated Muscle).

22 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Nerve Tissue Composed of two types of cells: Neurons - Specialized for transmission of nerve impulses. Glial Cells - Supply neurons with nutrients, support, and insulation. Neuron plasma membranes are rich in ion- selective channels that maintain voltage difference between cell interior and exterior.

23 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Nerve Tissue Each neuron composed of: Cell Body - Contains nucleus. Dendrites - Bring nerve impulses to cell. Axon - Carries nerve impulses away. - Nerve is made of axons of many neurons. Gaps (synapses) separate neurons. Neurons communicate by passing neurotransmitters across the gap.

24 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

25 Types of Skeletons Hydraulic - Fluid-filled cavity encircled by muscle fibers. Exoskeletons - Rigid hard case surrounding body. Endoskeletons - Rigid internal skeleton.

26 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Types of Skeletons Human Skeleton Made up of 206 individual bones. - Axial Skeleton (80 bones) support main body axis. Skull, Backbone, and Rib Cage. - Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones) support arms and legs. Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle

27 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

28 Structure of Bone Bone is produced when needle-shaped crystals surround and impregnate collagen fiber. Outer bone layer is dense and compact (compact bone). Interior of bone is open lattice structure (spongy bone).

29 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Structure of Bone New Bone Formed in Two Stages: Collagen secreted by osteoblasts which lay down matrix of fibrils. Calcium minerals impregnate fibrils. - Layers form as series of tubes around narrow central channel (Haversian Channel) running parallel to length of bone.

30 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Structure of Bone Two cell types responsible for bone remodeling during growth: Osteoblasts - Deposit bone. Osteoclasts - Secrete enzymes that digest organic matrix of bone, liberating calcium for reabsorption. Osteoporosis - Excessive bone loss usually associated with aging.

31 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Bone Structure

32 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Kinds of Muscle Skeletal Muscle - Move bones of the skeleton. Each muscle fiber consists of many elongated myofibrils, in turn composed of many myofilaments. - Contains protein filaments actin and myosin. Cardiac Muscle - Composed of chains of single cells organized into fibers that branch and interconnect. Coupled by gap junctions.

33 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Kinds of Muscle Smooth Muscle - Contain long, spindle- shaped cells. Individual myofilaments are not aligned into orderly assemblies, but into sheets. Some contract only when stimulated by a nerve or hormone.

34 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Kinds of Muscle Tendons Straps of densely connective tissue attaching muscles to bones. Bones pivot about flexible joints, pulled back and forth by muscles. - Origin attached by tendon to stationary bone. - Insertion attached to bone that moves during muscle contraction.

35 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Skeletal Muscle Organization

36 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Skeletal Muscle Organization Muscles in movable joints of vertebrates are attached in opposing pairs: Flexors and Extensors

37 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies How Muscles Work When myosin filaments contract heads of myosin filaments move first, moving them closer in the direction of the flex.

38 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies How Muscles Work Nerve fibers embedded in surface of muscle fiber forming neuromuscular junction. When signal reaches end of neuron, neuron releases acetylcholine into gap separating neuron from muscle. - Depolarization

39 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

40 How Muscles Work Role of Calcium Ions in Contraction When muscle is relaxed, attachment sites for myosin heads are physically blocked by tropomyosin. - In order to contract a muscle, troponin must move tropomyosin. Complex regulated calcium ion concentration. Muscle fibers store Ca ++ in sarcoplasmic reticulum.

41 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Calcium Controls Muscle Contraction

42 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Review Animal Body Plan Vertebrate Body Organization Vertebrate Organ Systems Epithelium Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Nerve Tissue Skeletal System Bones and Muscles

43 Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display


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