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An Introduction, to Biological Kenneth V. Kardong.

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1 An Introduction, to Biological Kenneth V. Kardong

2 Chapter 1 The images on this CD have been lifted directly, without change or modification, from textbooks and image libraries owned by the publisher, especially from publications intended for college majors in the discipline. Consequently, they are often more richly labeled than required for our purposes. Further, dates for geological intervals may vary between images, and between images and the textbook. Such dates are regularly revised as better corroborated times are established. Your best source for current geological times is a current edition of the textbook, whose dates should be used when differences arise.

3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Acquired characteristics A regular and sustained program of weightlifting yields enlarged muscles, an immediate physiological response of muscles to the increased effort. However, these big muscles remain with the individual that endured the regular exercises, and are not passed to their offspring. This is because the enlarged characteristics result from individual effort, not from an inheritable genetic change.

4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Evolutionary predecessors Over the years before Darwin, many biologists attempted to solve the mystery of the species question.

5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Darwin exploring the Galápagos Islands

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Galápagos tortoise

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Galápagos finches Analysis of these finches led scientists to hypothesize that they were derived from one ancestor arriving from the mainland to populate and diversify across the islands.

8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Giraffe necks Applied to giraffes, Lamarcks view (top) would expect that stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation, and this acquired characteristics was passed to offspring. In Darwins view (bottom), giraffes with long necks out competed those with short necks who died for want of successful resources.

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Schools of evolutionary thought The views of Linneaus, Lamarch, and Darwin are contrasted. A) Linneaus saw each species as a separate act of creation, one by one. B) Lamarck envisioned the passage of acquired characteristics of one generation to succeeding generations. C) Darwin viewed evolution as descent with modification.

10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display FIGURE 1.1 Charles Darwin (18091882) Darwin at about 30 years old, and three years back from his voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Although The Origin of Species was still just a few notebooks in length and several decades away from publication, Darwin had several accomplishments behind him, including his account The Voyage of the Beagle, a collection of scientific observations. At this time, he was also engaged to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, with whom he would live a happy married life.

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

12 FIGURE 1.2 Carolus Linnaeus (17071778) This Swedish biologist devised a system still used today for naming organisms. He also firmly abided by and promoted the view that species do not change.

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display FIGURE 1.3 J-B. de Lamarck (17441829) (a) J-B. de Lamarck worked most of his life at the Muséum dHistoire Naturelle (b). His academic position gave him a chance to promote the idea that species change.

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display FIGURE 1.4 Alfred Russel Wallace (18231913) Wallace in his thirties. (By courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London.)

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display FIGURE 1.5 HMS Beagle (a) Longitudinal section through HMS Beagle. (b) The five-year voyage of HMS Beagle.


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