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Cells Chapter 4 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies

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1 Cells Chapter 4 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

2 Outline Cell Theory Plasma Membrane Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
Cytoskeleton Cell Organelles Cell Movement Diffusion and Osmosis Bulk Passage Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

3 Observed thin slice of nonliving plant tissue.
Cell Theory Robert Hooke (1665) Observed thin slice of nonliving plant tissue. Observed honeycombed compartments he called cellulae (small rooms). Matthias Schleiden (1838) first statement of cell theory. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

4 Cells are smallest living things.
Cell Theory All organelles are composed of one or more cells, within which life processes occur. Cells are smallest living things. Life evolved only once, 3.5 billion years ago. Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

5 Cells range in size from 5-20 micrometers to 5 cm long.
Cell Size Cells range in size from 5-20 micrometers to 5 cm long. Most cells are small because larger cells do not function as efficiently. As cell size increases, volume increases more rapidly than surface area. Larger cells have less surface area per unit volume, thus less opportunity to interact with the environment. Cytoplasm fills cell interior. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

6 Lipid bilayer forms when phospholipids are placed in water.
Plasma Membrane Cell membrane made up of diverse collection of proteins floating within lipid framework. Fluid Mosaic Model Lipid bilayer forms when phospholipids are placed in water. Hydrophobic tails pointing in, hydrophilic heads pointing outward. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

7 Lipid Bilayer Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

8 Membrane Proteins - Float freely within lipid bilayer.
Plasma Membrane Membrane Proteins - Float freely within lipid bilayer. Cell Surface Proteins - Act as markers to identify particular types of cells. Transmembrane Proteins - Span entire membrane. Provide channels for molecule passage. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

9 Lipid Bilyer Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

10 Bacteria are simplest cellular organisms.
Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotes have a relatively uniform cytoplasm not subdivided by interior membranes (No interior compartments). Bacteria are simplest cellular organisms. Over 2,500 recognized species. Almost all are contained by a cell wall. Some bacteria contain another layer (capsule) enclosing the cell. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

11 Prokaryotic Cells Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

12 Specialized structures performing specific processes. Nucleus
Eukaryotic Cells Contain many membrane-bound interior compartments and a variety of organelles. Specialized structures performing specific processes. Nucleus Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

13 Cytoskeleton - dense network of protein fibers supporting cell shape.
Microfilaments Microtubules Intermediate Fibers Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

14 Engulfed prokaryotes provided hosts with certain metabolic advantages.
Cell Organelles Eukaryotic cells thought to have evolved from endosymbiosis between different species of prokaryotes. Engulfed prokaryotes provided hosts with certain metabolic advantages. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

15 Nucleus - Command and control center. Bound by nuclear envelope.
Covered with nuclear pores embedded by proteins permitting proteins and RNA to pass in and out of nucleus. Contain chromosomes holding DNA. Nucleolus - Cluster of genes encoding rRNA. Ribosome reads RNA and directs protein building. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

16 Nucleus Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

17 Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endomembrane System Endoplasmic Reticulum Internal membrane creating channels and membrane-enclosed vesicles. Carbohydrates and lipids manufactured on the surface. Proteins for export produced on surface covered with ribosomes (Rough ER). Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

18 Peroxisomes - Vesicles carrying out specific chemical functions.
Endomembrane System Golgi Complex Golgi bodies are scattered throughout the cytoplasm. Function in collection, packaging, and distribution of molecules manufactured in the cell. Lysosomes Arise from Golgi complex and break down macromolecules. (Recycling center) Peroxisomes - Vesicles carrying out specific chemical functions. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

19 Endomembrane System Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

20 DNA Containing Organelles
Mitochondria Double membrane organelles that extract energy from organic molecules. (Oxidative Metabolism) Inner membrane bent into numerous folds (cristae) that partitions mitochondrion into inner matrix and outer compartment. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

21 Mitochondria Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

22 DNA Containing Organelles
Chloroplasts Double membrane organelles that serve as site of photosynthesis. Inner membranes fused to form stacks of thylakoids, which are stacked on top of one another to form a column (granum). Interior bathed with semiliquid (stroma). Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

23 Chloroplasts Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

24 Microvilli project outward form surface of animal cells.
Cell Movement Microvilli project outward form surface of animal cells. Arrangement of actin filaments within cell cytoplasm allow cells to crawl. Flagella are fine, threadlike organelles protruding from cell surface. Arise from basal body and consist of nine microtubule pairs surrounding two central pairs. Cilia - Short, numerous flagella. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

25 Flagella and Cilia Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

26 Cell Walls - Composed of cellulose fibers. Primary Walls
Plant Cells Are Unique Central Vacuole - Large storage center for certain cell substances, and increases surface to volume ratio. Cell Walls - Composed of cellulose fibers. Primary Walls Middle Lamella Secondary Walls Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

27 Diffusion and Osmosis Diffusion
Random motion of molecules produces uniform mixture due to net movement of molecules down a concentration gradient (high concentration to low concentration). Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

28 Diffusion and Osmosis Osmosis
Diffusion of water across a membrane toward the side with polar molecules that cannot traverse the membrane. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

29 Solute - Substance dissolved in a solution.
Diffusion and Osmosis Solute - Substance dissolved in a solution. Hyperosmotic - Solution with higher concentration of solutes. Hypoosmotic - Solution with lower concentration of solutes. Isomotic - Osmotic concentration of both solution are equal. Osmotic Pressure - Pressure caused by movement of water into a cell. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

30 Excoytosis - Reverse of endocytosis.
Bulk Passage Endocytosis - Cell membrane engulfs particle and forms a vesicle, bringing the particle into the interior of the cell. Excoytosis - Reverse of endocytosis. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

31 Selective Permeability
Protein channels in membrane only allow passage of certain kinds of molecules. Selective Diffusion allows molecules to move through channels and equalize concentrations. Facilitated Diffusion - net movement down a concentration gradient facilitated by carrier proteins. Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

32 Facilitated Diffusion
Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

33 Sodium-Potassium Pump Proton Pump
Active Transport Active Transport - Using energy to move molecules through membrane protein channels against a concentration gradient. Sodium-Potassium Pump Proton Pump Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

34 Active Transport Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

35 How Cells Get Information
Chemical information sensed by surface receptor proteins. Hormone signals Voltage sensed by specialized ion channels. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

36 Review Cell Theory Plasma Membrane Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
Cytoskeleton Cell Organelles Cell Movement Diffusion and Osmosis Bulk Passage Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies

37 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display
Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies


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