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CHAPTER 8 CORPORATE STRATEGY: Diversification and the Multibusiness Company Student Version McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright ®2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 8 CORPORATE STRATEGY: Diversification and the Multibusiness Company Student Version McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright ®2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 8 CORPORATE STRATEGY: Diversification and the Multibusiness Company Student Version McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright ®2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2 8–28–2 Crafting a Diversified Firms Overall Or Corporate Strategy Step 1 Picking new industries to enter and deciding on the best mode of entry. Step 2 Pursuing opportunities to leverage cross-business value chain relationships and strategic fit into competitive advantage. Step 3 Establishing investment priorities and steering corporate resources into the most attractive business units. Step 4 Initiating actions to boost the combined performance of the cooperations collection of businesses.

3 8–38–3 BUILDING SHAREHOLDER VALUE: THE ULTIMATE JUSTIFICATION FOR DIVERSIFYING The industry attractiveness test The cost-of-entry test The better-off test Testing Whether a Diversification Move Will Add Long-Term Value for Shareholders

4 8–48–4 Better Performance through Synergy Evaluating the Potential for Synergy through Diversification Firm A purchases Firm B in another industry. A and Bs profits are no greater than what each firm could have earned on its own. Firm A purchases Firm C in another industry. A and Cs profits are greater than what each firm could have earned on its own. No Synergy (1+1=2) Synergy (1+1=3)

5 8–58–5 STRATEGIES FOR ENTERING NEW BUSINESSES Acquisition Internal new venture (start-up) Joint venture Diversifying into New Businesses

6 8–68–6 When to Engage in Internal Development Availability of in- house skills and resources Ample time to develop and launch business Cost of acquisition is higher than internal entry Added capacity will not affect supply and demand balance Low resistance of incumbent firms to market entry No head-to-head competition in targeted industry Factors Favoring Internal Development

7 8–78–7 When to Engage in a Joint Venture Evaluating the Potential for a Joint Venture Is the opportunity too complex, uneconomical, or risky for one firm to pursue alone? Does the opportunity require a broader range of competencies and know-how than the firm now possesses? Will the opportunity involve operations in a country that requires foreign firms to have a local minority or majority ownership partner?

8 8–88–8 Choosing a Mode of Market Entry The Question of Critical Resources and Capabilities Does the firm have the resources and capabilities for internal development? The Question of Entry Barriers Are there entry barriers to overcome? The Question of Speed Is speed an important factor in the firms chances for successful entry? The Question of Comparative Cost Which is the least costly mode of entry, given the firms objectives?

9 8–98–9 CHOOSING THE DIVERSIFICATION PATH: RELATED VERSUS UNRELATED BUSINESSES Related Businesses Unrelated Businesses Both Related and Unrelated Businesses Which Diversification Path to Pursue?

10 8–10 Identifying Cross-Business Strategic Fit along the Value Chain R&D and Technology Activities Supply Chain Activities Manufacturing- Related Activities Distribution- Related Activities Customer Service Activities Sales and Marketing Activities Potential Cross-Business Fits

11 8–11 Strategic Fit, Economies of Scope, and Competitive Advantage Transferring specialized and generalized skills and\or knowledge Combining related value chain activities to achieve lower costs Leveraging brand names and other differentiation resources Using cross- business collaboration and knowledge sharing Using Economies of Scope to Convert Strategic Fit into Competitive Advantage

12 8–12 From Competitive Advantage to Added Profitability and Gains in Shareholder Value Builds more shareholder value than owning a stock portfolio Is only possible via a strategy of related diversification Yields value in the application of specialized resources and capabilities Requires that management take internal actions to realize them Capturing the Cross-Business Benefits of Related Diversification

13 8–13 DIVERSIFICATION INTO UNRELATED BUSINESSES Evaluating the acquisition of a new business or the divestiture of an existing business Can it meet corporate targets for profitability and return on investment? Is it is in an industry with attractive profit and growth potentials? Is it is big enough to contribute significantly to the parent firms bottom line?

14 8–14 Building Shareholder Value via Unrelated Diversification Astute Corporate Parenting by Management Cross-Business Allocation of Financial Resources Acquiring and Restructuring Undervalued Companies Using an Unrelated Diversification Strategy to Pursue Value

15 8–15 The Path to Greater Shareholder Value through Unrelated Diversification Actions taken by upper management to create value and gain a parenting advantage Do a superior job of diversifying into businesses that produce good earnings and returns on investment. Do an excellent job of negotiating favorable acquisition prices. Provide managerial oversight and resource sharing, financial resource allocation and portfolio management, and restructure underperforming businesses.

16 8–16 The Drawbacks of Unrelated Diversification Pursuing an Unrelated Diversification Strategy Limited Competitive Advantage Potential Demanding Managerial Requirements Monitoring and maintaining the parenting advantage Potential lack of cross-business strategic-fit benefits

17 8–17 Inadequate Reasons for Pursuing Unrelated Diversification Seeking reduction of business investment risk Pursuing rapid or continuous growth for its own sake Seeking stabilization to avoid cyclical swings in businesses Pursuing personal managerial motives Poor Rationales for Unrelated Diversification

18 8–18 COMBINATION RELATED-UNRELATED DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES Dominant- Business Enterprises Narrowly Diversified Firms Broadly Diversified Firms Multibusiness Enterprises Related-Unrelated Business Portfolio Combinations

19 8–19 EVALUATING THE STRATEGY OF A DIVERSIFIED COMPANY Diversified Strategy Attractiveness of industries Strength of Business Units Cross-business strategic fit Fit of firms resources Allocation of resources New Strategic Moves

20 8–20 Step 1: Evaluating Industry Attractiveness Does each industry represent a good market for the firm to be in? Which industries are most attractive, and which are least attractive? How appealing is the whole group of industries? How attractive are the industries in which the firm has business operations?

21 8–21 Step 2: Evaluating Business-Unit Competitive Strength Relative market share Costs relative to competitors costs. Ability to match or beat rivals on key product attributes. Brand image and reputation. Other competitively valuable resources and capabilities. Strategic fit with the firms other businesses. Bargaining leverage with key suppliers or customers. Alliances and partnerships with suppliers and/or buyers. Profitability relative to competitors

22 8–22 Step 4: Checking for Resource Fit Financial Resource Fit State of the internal capital market Using the portfolio approach: Cash hogs need cash to develop. Cash cows generate excess cash. Star businesses are self-supporting. Success sequence: Cash hog Star Cash cow

23 8–23 Step 5: Ranking Business Unit Performance and Assigning Resource Allocation Priorities Ranking Factors: Sales growth Profit growth Contribution to company earnings Return on capital invested in the business Cash flow Steer resources to business units with the brightest profit and growth prospects and solid strategic and resource fit.

24 8–24 Step 6: Crafting New Strategic Moves to Improve Overall Corporate Performance Stick with the Existing Business Lineup Broaden the Diversification Base with New Acquisitions Divest and Retrench to a Narrower Diversification Base Restructure through Divestitures and Acquisitions Strategy Options for a Firm That Is Already Diversified

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