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©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Chapter 5 The Diverse World of First- Century Judaisms.

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Presentation on theme: "©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Chapter 5 The Diverse World of First- Century Judaisms."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Chapter 5 The Diverse World of First- Century Judaisms

2 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Key Topics/Themes The diversity of first-century Judaism Common beliefs of first-century Jews

3 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education First-century Jewish Diversity

4 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Sadducees Origins of the Sadducees The Sadducees and the Romans Characteristic beliefs of the Sadducees

5 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Pharisees Antagonism toward the Pharisees in the Gospels Strict Torah observance Hillel and Shammai Relationship between the views of Jesus and the Pharisees Gamaliel

6 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Academy of Jamnia The leadership of Yohanan ben Zakkai The development of Judaism at Jamnia

7 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Samaritans The origin of the Samaritans Hostility between Samaritans and Jews Relationships between Samaritans and early Christianity

8 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Essenes and the Dead Sea Scrolls Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls The Essenes

9 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Qumran Community Origins of the Qumran community Beliefs of the Qumran Essenes

10 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Qumran Community (contd.) Contents of the Qumran library (Dead Sea Scrolls) –Books of the Hebrew Bible –Pseudepigraphical books –Commentaries on biblical books –Community documents Essenes and the New Testament

11 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Zealots Origins of the Zealot movement The role of the Zealots in the Jewish Revolt of 66 C.E.

12 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Messiah: First-century Expectations Jesus failure to meet Jewish messianic expectations Early Christian attempts to counter Jewish skepticism about Jesus messiahship

13 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Messiah (contd.) The Royal Covenant of King David –Origins of Messiah theology in reigns of Davidic kings –Historical end of the Davidic dynasty Israels hopes for a new Davidic king –Scriptural promises of a new dynasty –The Messiah as political leader

14 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Messianic Claimants Before and After Jesus Judas the Galilean The Zealots and the Sicarii Simon bar Giora Simon bar Kochba

15 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Portrayal of the Messiah in Psalm of Solomon 17 See, Lord, and raise up for them [Israel] their king, the son of David [italics added] to rule over your servant Israel in the time known to you, O God.... There will be no unrighteousness among them in his days, for all shall be holy, and their king shall be the Lord Messiah [italics added].

16 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education A Revisionist View of the Messiah The incompleteness of Jesus earthly mission The necessity of Jesus return as supernatural king

17 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Summary The New Testament Jesus explained using variety of Jewish traditions: –Anointed monarch in tradition of David –Lawgiver and prophet like Moses –Suffering servant –Heavenly sacrifice and eternal priest –Image of the invisible God –Christ (mashiah) as Jesus name, not a title only

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