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1 Broadcast Television Chapter 10 © 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Broadcast Television Chapter 10 © 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Broadcast Television Chapter 10 © 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 2 CHAPTER OUTLINE History Contemporary Broadcast Television Television in the Digital Age Defining Features of Broadcast Television Organization of the Broadcast Television Industry Ownership in the Television Industry Producing Television Programs Economics Public Broadcasting Home Video Feedback

3 3 HISTORY 1920s-1930s –Philo Farnsworth –Vladimir Zworykin WWII: FCC halted development of TV 1948: TVs growth so rapid the FCC imposed freeze on new station licenses 1952: FCC established rules to minimize interference – 12 VHF and 70 UHF channels

4 4 The 1950s: Networks, Tape, UHF, and Color TV modeled after radio –Local stations affiliated with networks 1956, Ampex developed videotape –By 1960, most programs were taped UHF channels didnt compete well Network color broadcasts began, up to about 3 hours per day by 1960

5 5 The Golden Age of Television 1950s growth and experimentation Pioneering programs: –Ed Sullivans Toast of the Town; Milton Berles Texaco Star Theater –High quality dramas: Studio One –Adult westerns: Gunsmoke

6 6 Coming of Age: Television in the 1960s 1960: TVs in more than 95% of US homes 1965: TV news expands from 15 to 30 minutes –TV journalism earns praise (Kennedy, Civil Rights; moon walk) 1967: Public Broadcasting Act establishes PBS Cable grows during the 1960s Escapist/fantasy fare dominates

7 7 The 1970s: Growing Public Concern Surgeon Generals report on violent TV –Modest connection between heavy viewing and violence among some children Citizen groups (Action for Childrens Television; minority group coalitions) influenced broadcast policy Cable industry began competing with TV Programming trends included crime drama, then adult sitcoms, then prime time soap operas

8 8 The 1980s and 1990s: Increased Competition Continuing erosion of the big 3 networks audiences Increased competition from new networks and cable channels

9 9 Cables Continued Growth By 2000, cable reached more than 68% of the population Channel capacity increased and new programming services emerged Cable full-fledged competitor to broadcast TV

10 10 Zipping, Zapping, Grazing, and DBS VCR in 90% of US households by 2000 VCR impact on broadcast and cable TV –Time shifting, zapping, zipping, grazing Low-power television (LPTV) Direct broadcast by satellite (DBS) Telecommunications Act of 1996 –TV program ratings and V-chip Programming trends: 1980s family-oriented sitcoms; 1990s newsmagazines; 2000s reality programs and cable dramas

11 11 CONTEMPORARY BROADCAST TELEVISION Audiences are shrinking Advertising dollars going to web Big Four networks using new distribution channels Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) –Increasing in number; replacing VCRs Greater reliance on reality shows than scripted shows TV is on an average of 8 hours per day. Broadcast networks still best way for advertisers to reach audiences

12 12 TELEVISION IN THE DIGITAL AGE February 17, 2009: Official transition from analog to digital TV broadcasting Advantages of digital television (DTV) –Clearer pictures and sound –More rectangular format –Allows high definition TV (HDTV) –Channel can be subdivided and multiple programs can be sent at the same time

13 13 Broadcasters Discover the Web More programs available on the Internet Broadcasters web sites offering more –Full-screen, high-resolution streaming video –Original online content –Social networking options –MySpace pages –Advertising on sites and in streaming video –Podcasts Local stations still need to do more

14 14 Broadcasters and Broadband Broadband: High-speed internet connections –Cable modem; DSL –Supports sending video over web Networks offer special-interest (non- broadcast) content via broadband Not yet profitable, but not too risky Reach younger audiences

15 15 Mobile TV Broadcasters supplying content to cell phones –MobiTV Mobile pedestrian handheld technology

16 16 User-Generated Content Broadcasters were first to realize potential of user-generated content –Americas Funniest Home Videos How to relate to video sharing giants such as YouTube?

17 17 DEFINING FEATURES OF BROADCAST TELEVISION Universal medium, in about 99% of US homes TV on for about 8 hours per day Dominant US medium for news and entertainment Expensive Audience continues to fragment

18 18 ORGANIZATION OF THE BROADCAST TELEVISION INDUSTRY Commercial or noncommercial stations Licensed by FCC to serve community –210 such markets in US 6 commercial networks plus PBS Network affiliates Independents

19 19 Production Local production Network programs Syndicated programs –Off-net series

20 20 Distribution Distribution outlets –Broadcast networks, cable networks, syndication companies Network-affiliate contract –Local station carries network programs –Network pays station (compensation) Compensation is decreasing and may be eliminated Syndication companies lease content to individual stations in local markets –Profitable aftermarket for prime time TV series

21 21 Exhibition About 1300 commercial stations & 380 noncommercial stations VHF (very high frequency, 2-13) or UHF (ultra high frequency, 14-69) –With cable, differences between VHF and UHF are less important; will be still less important with digital TV Most local stations are network affiliates

22 22 OWNERSHIP IN THE TELEVISION INDUSTRY All major networks are owned by conglomerates NBC - General Electric ABC - Walt Disney CBS - CBS Corp, spun off from Viacom Fox - News Corporation CW - Joint venture CBS & Time Warner MyNetwork TV - News Corporation Telecommunications Act of 1996 –No ownership limit unless combined reach exceeds 39% of US population –Big groups control most TV stations in top 100 markets

23 23 PRODUCING TELEVISION PROGRAMS Many people are involved in getting programs on the air

24 24 Departments and Staff Station –Station manager, sales, engineering, production/programming, news, administration Network –Sales, entertainment, owned and operated stations, affiliate relation, news, sports, standards, operations

25 25 Getting TV Programs on the Air Local station: Local newscast is key –Also interviews, sports shows Network: Prime time programming is key –8:00-11:00 p.m., Eastern Prime time programs –Program ideas, sample scripts, pilots –About 25 pilots per network per year

26 26 ECOMONICS TV industry has been profitable since 1950 Ad revenue increased every year since 1971 Changes in the industry are affecting the bottom line of networks and stations

27 27 Commercial Time Three types of advertisers –National advertisers –National spot advertisers –Local advertisers Bigger ratings=higher costs for airtime TV shows also generate revenue from –Product placement –Text messaging fees

28 28 Where Did the Money Go? Network programming is expensive –30:00 sitcom: $1 million per episode –60:00 show: about $3 million per episode Quiz and reality shows are a lot cheaper

29 29 PUBLIC BROADCASTING Public broadcasting has existed in the US for more than 40 years

30 30 A Short History 1967 Public Broadcasting Act –Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) –Public Broadcasting System (PBS) Internal disputes regarding programming Competition from cable channels Reduced funding – political issue –Stations looking for other funding sources

31 31 Programming and Financing Tension between local stations and centralized PBS organization –1990: moved toward more centralized programming. Ratings remain low Sesame Street; Nova 354 PBS stations; licensed by FCC –Licensed to 169 community organizations, universities, states/cities Funding from government, viewer contributions, businesses, grants, etc. PBS moving slowly into digital age

32 32 HOME VIDEO DVDs & VCRs common in US households DVRs (Digital Video Recorders) gaining ground –VCRs and DVRs can time-shift Home video industry functions: –Production (motion picture studios dominate) –Distribution (record-like rack jobbers dominate) –Retail (retail and department stores) DVD opened new aftermarket for TV –Retailers concerned about video on demand and premium channels

33 33 FEEDBACK The television industry seeks feedback in a variety of ways

34 34 Measuring TV Viewing Demographic data and viewing behavior Nielsen Media Research Network ratings: –Nielsen Television Index –People Meter, national sample = 5000 –Testing Portable People Meter (PPM) Nielsen Local-Market TV Ratings –200 markets, 4 times per year (sweeps) Diary/electronic metering Nielsen hopes to phase out paper diaries

35 35 Ratings Reporting Rating: Number of households watching a program, divided by the total number of TV households Share: Number of households watching a program, divided by number of households actually watching TV at that time Sweeps (Feb, May, July, Nov) –Local market people meters will decrease importance of traditional sweeps periods Determining accuracy of ratings –Media Ratings Council (previously Electronic Media Ratings Council; EMRC) set up to monitor, audit, accredit broadcast ratings services –Sample size: statistically, 5000 is acceptable –Other criticisms may deserve closer attention

36 36 Questionnaires, Concept Testing, and Pilot Testing Questionnaires: Networks ask people about their tastes, opinions, beliefs Concept testing: Networks ask people for reactions to paragraphs describing possible new programs Pilot testing: Networks show people sample programs and ask for evaluations.

37 37 Television Audiences TV is entrenched in American life –TV set in 99% of homes; 75% have more than one set –TV is on for eight hours per day; average person watches more than three hours –Viewing is heaviest: During prime time In winter (lightest in July/August) In low-income households Among people with lower educations Among females

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