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Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-1 Chapter Seven Descriptive.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-1 Chapter Seven Descriptive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-1 Chapter Seven Descriptive Research Designs: Survey Methods and Errors

2 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-2 Learning Objectives Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using survey research designs to collect primary data. Discuss the many types of survey methods available to researchers. Identify and discuss the factors that drive the choice of survey methods.

3 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-3 Learning Objectives Explain how the electronic revolution is affecting the administration of survey research designs. Identify and describe the strengths and weaknesses of each type of survey method. Identify and explain the types of errors that occur in survey research.

4 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-4 Introduction The researcher should consider using a descriptive research design to collect primary data if: They require primary data from members of the defined target population, and If managements initial decision problems are linked to specified questions concerning: Who, what, when, where, why and how about known members (or elements) of the target population. Identifying meaningful relationships, establishing the existence of true differences and/or verifying the validity of relationships between the marketing variables.

5 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-5 Survey Research Methods Research procedures for collecting large amounts of data using question and answer formats. Collect standardised data.

6 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-6 Select the Research Design - Descriptive Research Designs Descriptive research designs include a range of survey research methods. These include person-administered surveys, telephone-administered surveys, self-administered surveys and online-administered surveys.

7 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-7 Descriptive Research Designs The need for descriptive research designs: When the researcher requires large amounts of information from enough members of the target population so that inductive logic and probabilistic inferences can be drawn.

8 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-8 Survey Research Methods These methods are important in marketing research: Generally associated with descriptive and causal research. Distinguished by the need to collect data from large samples of people. Administered to selected individuals with responses recorded in a structured and precise manner. Provide specific facts and estimates so that accurate predictions can be made.

9 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Quantitative Survey Research Designs Ability to accommodate large sample sizes at relatively low costs - this increases generalisability of results. Ability to distinguish small differences. Ease of administering and recording questions and answers. Can use advanced statistical analysis. Abilities of tapping into factors and relationships not directly measurable. Difficulty of developing accurate survey instruments (questionnaire designs). Limitations to the in-depth detail in the data. Lack of control over timeliness and, potentially, low response rates. Difficulties in determining whether respondents are responding truthfully. Misinterpretations of data results and inappropriate use of data analysis procedures. Advantages of Survey MethodsDisadvantages of Survey Methods

10 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-10 Types of Survey Methods Person-administered surveys Requires trained interviewer. Telephone-administered surveys Generally use CATI. Self-administered surveys Respondent records answers without an interviewer. Online-administered surveys Conducted online.

11 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-11 Types of Survey Methods Person-Administered In-home interview An interview takes place in the respondent's home or, in special situations, within the respondents work environment (in-office). Executive interview An interview takes place with the business executive in person. Shopping centre/ Mall-intercept interview The interviewer stops shopping patrons and asks for feedback during their visit to a shopping centre or a shopping mall. Purchase-intercept interview The interviewer stops the respondent and asks for feedback at the point of purchase.

12 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-12 Types of Survey Methods Telephone-Administered Telephone interview An interview takes place over the phone. Interviews may be conducted from a central telephone location or the interviewers home. Computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) A telephone interview takes place using a computer: the interviewer reads the questions from a computer screen and directly records the answers. Computer software can manage selection of telephone numbers and the order of questions to be asked. Questions can be skipped where appropriate and the question order can be rotated.

13 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-13 Types of Survey Methods Self-Administered Direct mail survey AS EXHIBIT 7.2 Mail panel survey AS EXHIBIT 7.2 Drop-off survey AS EXHIBIT 7.2

14 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-14 Types of Survey Methods Online Fax survey AS EXHIBIT 7.2 survey AS EXHIBIT 7.2 Internet survey AS EXHIBIT 7.2 See Exhibit 7.2

15 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-15 Other Survey Designs Drop off surveys Fax surveys Direct mail Mail panels Proctor and Gambles Zoomerang

16 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-16 Online Techniques are Replacing Traditional Techniques Techniques such as CAPI are replacing personal interviews. CATI has replaced (in most cases) traditional telephone interviews. Exhibit 7.3 on the next slide shows the new online methods.

17 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-17 The New Online Methods

18 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-18 Benefits of the Computer- Assisted Data Collection Methods

19 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-19 Factors for Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method Budget of available resources What degree of appropriate resources can be committed to the project? Consider: Total dollars and worker hours available. Cost of collecting the required data. What degree of appropriate resources can be committed to the project? Consider: Total dollars and worker hours available. Cost of collecting the required data. Completion time frame How much time is needed for completing the research project? Consider: Data-gathering Analysis Information-generation activities How much time is needed for completing the research project? Consider: Data-gathering Analysis Information-generation activities Quality requirement of the data How accurate and representative is the derived information to the research problem? Consider: Completeness Generalisability Precision How accurate and representative is the derived information to the research problem? Consider: Completeness Generalisability Precision Situational Characteristics

20 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-20 Factors for Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method Data quality determination definitions Completeness How much information and what degree of detail are needed for the defined research problem? Generalisability At what level of confidence does the researcher want to make inferences about the defined target population form the data results? Precision What is the acceptable level of error that the data results may have in representing true population parameters?

21 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-21 Factors for Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method Difficulty of the task How much effort is required by the respondent to answer the questions? How hard does the subject have to work to answer the questions? How much preparation is required to create a desired environment for the respondents? How much effort is required by the respondent to answer the questions? How hard does the subject have to work to answer the questions? How much preparation is required to create a desired environment for the respondents? Stimuli needed to elicit the response How much physical stimulus does a respondent need? Do specific stimuli have to be used to elicit a response? How complex do the stimuli have to be? Task Characteristics

22 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-22 Factors for Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method Amount of information needed from the respondent How detailed do the respondents answers have to be? Will probing activities be needed? How many questions should there be? How long should the respondent expect to take? Task Characteristics Research topic Sensitivity To what degree are the surveys questions socially, politically and/or personally sensitive?

23 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-23 Factors for Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method Diversity AS EXHIBIT 7.6 Incidence rate AS EXHIBIT 7.6 Degree of survey participation AS EXHIBIT 7.6 Respondent Characteristics

24 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-24 Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Random sampling error Error associated with the sampled data results due to some form of natural random chance or random fluctuations in the data estimates. The statistically measured difference between the actual sampled results and the estimated true population results. As sample size increases, sampling error decreases. Error associated with the sampled data results due to some form of natural random chance or random fluctuations in the data estimates. The statistically measured difference between the actual sampled results and the estimated true population results. As sample size increases, sampling error decreases. Random sampling errors and Non-sampling errors Non-sampling error All errors that enter survey research design that are not related to the sampling method or sample size. Often called systematic error. All errors that enter survey research design that are not related to the sampling method or sample size. Often called systematic error.

25 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-25 Non-response error Occurs when a sufficient number of the initial prospective respondents are not included in the final sample of a study. Results in a portion of the population is not represented or is under represented. Non-response error Occurs when a sufficient number of the initial prospective respondents are not included in the final sample of a study. Results in a portion of the population is not represented or is under represented. Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Not at home: A prospective respondent is not reasonably able to be reached despite reasonable attempts. Wrong mailing address: A prospective respondents address is outdated or inactive. Wrong telephone number: A prospective respondents telephone number is no longer in service or is incorrect. Refusal: A prospective respondent is unwilling to participate. Respondent error sources

26 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-26 Response error Occurs when a significant number of respondents either unconsciously or deliberately misrepresent or deliberately falsify their responses. Response error Occurs when a significant number of respondents either unconsciously or deliberately misrepresent or deliberately falsify their responses. Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Social desirability: A response based on what is perceived to be socially acceptable or respectable. Prestige: A response intended to enhance the image of the respondent. Auspices error: A response dictated by the image or opinion of the sponsor rather than the actual question. Hostility: A response that arises from feelings of anger or resentment due to the response task. Respondent error sources

27 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-27 Response error Occurs when a significant number of respondents either unconsciously or deliberately misrepresent or deliberately falsify their responses. Response error Occurs when a significant number of respondents either unconsciously or deliberately misrepresent or deliberately falsify their responses. Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Yea- and nay- saying: A response influenced by the tendency towards positive or negative answers. Mental set error: A response based on perceptions influenced by previous responses over later ones. Acquiescence error: A response based on the respondents perception of what would be desirable to the sponsor. Extremity error: A response influenced by clarity or extreme scale points and ambiguity of midrange options. Respondent error sources

28 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-28 Construct development error Occurs when the researcher does not accurately or completely identify the important sub-dimensions of the constructs to be measured. The data is misidentified because the composite does not represent the intended object to be measured. Construct development error Occurs when the researcher does not accurately or completely identify the important sub-dimensions of the constructs to be measured. The data is misidentified because the composite does not represent the intended object to be measured. Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Incomplete constructs: Only partial data requirements are met. This creates inappropriate guidelines for scale measurement and questionnaire design activities. Low reliability or validity: Construct validity is not maintained, which increases the likelihood of collecting irrelevant or low-quality data. Measurement and design error sources

29 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-29 Scaling measurement error Occurs when the researcher designs inaccuracies into the various scales used to collect the primary data. Errors could come from inappropriate questions or set- ups, scale attributes or actual scale points used to represent respondents answers. Scaling measurement error Occurs when the researcher designs inaccuracies into the various scales used to collect the primary data. Errors could come from inappropriate questions or set- ups, scale attributes or actual scale points used to represent respondents answers. Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Lack of precision: Decreases reliability of data quality. Lack of discriminatory power: Respondents encounter difficulties in accurate expression or sensitivity between possible answers. Data cannot be used to detect small differences. Measurement and design error sources Ambiguity of questions or set-ups: Misleads or confuses the respondent. Inappropriate scale descriptors: Survey collects wrong or incomplete data which severely reduces the researchers ability to create meaningful information. Ambiguity of questions or set-ups: Misleads or confuses the respondent. Inappropriate scale descriptors: Survey collects wrong or incomplete data which severely reduces the researchers ability to create meaningful information.

30 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-30 Survey instrument design error Types of researcher error sources in survey research methods

31 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-31 Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Measurement and design error sources Misinterpretation error Inaccurate transformations of data and analysis results into usable bits of information for the decision maker. Misinterpretation error Inaccurate transformations of data and analysis results into usable bits of information for the decision maker. Interpretative bias Selective perception Data analysis error Represents a group of errors that relate to subjecting the data to inappropriate analysis procedures. Data analysis error Represents a group of errors that relate to subjecting the data to inappropriate analysis procedures. Inappropriate analysis Predictive analysis

32 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-32 Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Data coding errors Data entry errors Administrative error sources Data editing errors Data processing error Occurs when researchers are not accurate or complete in transferring the data from respondents to computer data files. Data processing error Occurs when researchers are not accurate or complete in transferring the data from respondents to computer data files. Unconscious misrepresentation Recording errors Cheating Interviewer error Occurs when interviewers distort information, in a systematic way, from respondents during or after the interviewer/respondent encounter. Interviewer error Occurs when interviewers distort information, in a systematic way, from respondents during or after the interviewer/respondent encounter.

33 Copyright 2007 McGraw-Hill Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Marketing Research 2e by Hair, Lukas, Bush and Ortinau Slides prepared by Judy Rex 7-33 Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Population specification error Sample selection error Administrative error sources Sampling frame error Sample design error Represents systematic inaccuracies created by using a faulty sampling design to identify and reach the selected right respondents. This will limit the generalisability, reliability and validity of the collected data. Sample design error Represents systematic inaccuracies created by using a faulty sampling design to identify and reach the selected right respondents. This will limit the generalisability, reliability and validity of the collected data.


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