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McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Criminal Investigation Criminal Investigation Swanson Chamelin Territo eighth edition TEN Sex-related Offenses
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LEARNING OBJECTIVES List and explain the classifications of sex offenses List and explain the four types of sexual murder Discuss interview procedures and investigative questions for sexual assault cases Explain why women do not report rape to the police and the motivation for false rape allegations Outline the types of physical evidence collected in rape and sexual assault cases Discuss the importance of condom trace evidence Identify the use and effects of Rohypnol and GHB Assess investigative and evidence collection techniques for drug-facilitates sexual assaults Recognize common characteristics of sexual asphyxia, or autoerotic death Describe a psychological autopsy 10-1
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CLASSIFICATION OF SEX RELATED OFFENSES Serious Sex Offenses –Sex offenses of this type, such as rape or sexual battery as it is also called, are high-priority offenses Nuisance Sex Offenses –Included in this classification are such acts as voyeurism and exhibitionism Sex Offenses Involving Mutual Consent –Sex offenses of this nature involve consenting adults whose behavior is deemed illegal by various state and local laws 10-2
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. RAPE-MURDER CLASSIFICATIONS Keppel and Walter developed a model for understanding rape-murder by examining: –behaviors –homicidal patterns –and suspect profiles –of convicted sexual murders 10-3 Power AssertivePower ReassuranceAnger RetaliatoryAnger Excitation Rape is planned; murder is not planned Rape and murder are planned Power interest Anger driven Killers increasing aggression toward the victim ensures control Killer acts out fantasy and seeks reassurance from the victim Killer seeks revenge for anger toward another person by attacking a symbolic victim Killer engages in prolonged torture, exploitation, and/or mutilation, thereby energizing his fantasy life (Source: Robert D. Keppel and Richard Walter, Profiling Killers: A Revised Classification Model for Understanding Sexual Murder, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 1999, Vol. 43, No. 4, p. 420.)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. RAPE OR SEXUAL BATTERY A legal term defining the crime of a person having sexual relations with another person under the following circumstances: against the person's consent; while the other person is unconscious; while the other person is under the influence of alcohol; with a person who is feeble minded or insane; and with a child who is under the age of consent as fixed by statute. 10-4
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. INTERVIEW PROCEDURES AND INVESTIGATIVE QUESTIONS/SEXUAL ASSAULT CASES Type and sequence of sexual acts during an assault –To determine the motivation behind a rape, it is imperative to ascertain the type and sequence of the rape Verbal activity of rapist –A rapist reveals a good deal about himself and the motivation behind the assault though what he says to the victim Verbal activity of victim –The rapist may make the victim say certain words or phrases that enhance the rape for him 10-5(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. INTERVIEW PROCEDURES AND INVESTIGATIVE QUESTIONS/SEXUAL ASSAULT CASES (cont'd) Sudden change in rapist's attitude during the attack –The victim should be specifically asked whether she observed any change in the attitude of the rapist during the time he was with her Theft during rape –Almost without exception, police record the theft of items from rape victims Delayed reporting –If the victim has delayed making a complaint, the investigator should establish the reason 10-5(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. RAPE VICTIM The teenager victim in this case was: –raped –mutilated –had her arms chopped off 10-6 (AP Photo/Tampa Tribune, David Kadlubowski)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. WHY WOMEN DO NOT REPORT RAPE TO THE POLICE Lack of belief in the ability of the police to apprehend the suspect Worries about unsympathetic treatment from police and discomforting procedures Embarrassment about publicity, however limited Fear of reprisal by the rapist 10-7
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. WHY DO WOMEN SOMETIMES MAKE FALSE RAPE ALLEGATIONS? Prostitutes who have not been paid Females caught in the act of sexual intercourse by relatives, friends, or law enforcement officials Women who cannot explain an unwanted pregnancy Women who want to cause difficulty for some man because of a real or imagined interpersonal conflict 10-8
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE VICTIM AND PHYSICAL EVIDENCE Instructions to the Victim –The officer responding to a reported sexual assault should make a great effort to ensure that any evidence that may be on the victim is secure Semen and Hair Evidence –Semen that contains sperm and hair with the root attached can now be identified as coming from a specific individual as a result of DNA typing Information for the Examining Physician –The physician responsible for examining the victim should be provided with all of the available facts before the physical examination Collection of the Victim's Clothing –The victim's clothing should be collected as soon as possible 10-9(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE VICTIM AND PHYSICAL EVIDENCE (cont'd) The Role of the Investigator in Securing the Rape Scene –It is the criminal investigator's job to collect, catalog, and store physical evidence for later analysis in the laboratory Incidence of Errors in the Collection of Evidence –In spite of the importance of proper handling, evidence still continues to be mishandled Sexual Battery Examination –Most hospitals of crisis center responsible for the collection of evidence from sex-offense victims have developed sexual battery examination kits 10-9(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. SEXUAL BATTERY EXAMINATION KIT Sexual-battery examination kits contain items such as: –blood vials –paper bags –sterile dacron-tipped applicators –envelopes for swabs taken 10-10 (Courtesy Pinellas County, Florida, Public Health Unit, Sexual Assault Victim Examination Program)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE VALUE OF CONDOM TRACE EVIDENCE Condom trace evidence can assist investigators in several ways. –In Providing Corpus Delicti. Trace evidence may help prove the crime occurred. –In Providing Evidence of Penetration. Condom traces found inside a victim can provide evidence of penetration. –In Producing Associative Evidence. Recovered condom traces may correspond to those found in certain brand or used by a certain manufacturer. –In Linking the Acts of Serial Rapists. A serial rapist likely will use the same brand of condom to commit repeated acts. 10-11
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. DRUG FACILITATED SEXUAL ASSAULTS Rohypnol (street name Roofies), known as the drug flunitrazepam, belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines –It produces a spectrum of effects including skeletal muscle relaxation, sedation, and reductions in anxiety GHB. Gamma hydroxybutyrate or GHB (also known as Gamma-OH, Liquid Ecstasy, Georgia Home Boy, or Goop) –It is another central nervous system depressant that is used to perpetrate sexual assaults 10-12
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ROHYPNOL Drug used by sex offenders at: –parties –bars –clubs –social drinking locations 10-13 (Courtesy Sergeant Christopher McKissick and Detective Tyler Parks, Port Orange, Florida, Police Department)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. INVESTIGATING AND COLLECTING EVIDENCE IN DRUG-FACILITATED SEXUAL ASSAULTS Evidence Collection and Processing –Because victims may be unaware, or only suspect, that an assault has occurred, law enforcement has the critical task of gathering as much physical evidence as soon as possible The Investigation –Law enforcement officers cannot rely on forensic toxicology reports alone. Accounts from any people at the scene will be important Evidence –At the proper time a warrant can be obtained for the search of a suspect's residence, car, or place of work for evidence of Rohypnol or other drugs 10-14
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. AUTOEROTIC DEATH Death from accidental asphyxiation occurring as a result of masochistic activities of the deceased. Also called sexual asphyxia. 10-15
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. AUTOEROTIC DEATH In autoerotic death cases the investigator will typically find: –a white male partially suspended and nude –dressed in women's clothing or undergarments –or with his penis exposed 10-16
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PSYCHOLOGICAL AUTOPSY An analytical statement prepared by a mental health professional based upon the decedent's thoughts, feelings and behavior. Its purpose is to form a logical understanding of death from tangible physical evidence, documented life events, and intangible often musive emotional factors. 10-17
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